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Selected Sites

Imperial War Museum London

Museum

IWM London is one of the five branches of the Imperial War Museum in England. It comprises different exhibitions presenting the stories of people whose lives have been impacted by war, through unique documents and objects, art, sound, film and other means. The museum offers two permanent displays focusing on the Second World War: ‘The Holocaust Exhibition’ and ‘A Family in Wartime’.

Imperial War Museum Duxford

Museum

IWM Duxford can be found near Duxford in Cambridgeshire, England. The museum was built on a historic airfield and it was the first branch of the Imperial War Museum to be opened to the public on a regular basis in June 1976. IWM Duxford presents the history of aviation with hundreds of aircraft, military vehicles, artillery and other objects on display.

Imperial War Museum North Manchester

Museum

Opened in 2002 and located at Salford Quays in Greater Manchester, IWM North is one of the five branches of the Imperial War Museum. Its iconic building was designed by renowned architect Daniel Libeskind. The museum comprises different permanent and temporary exhibitions presenting the story of modern war and conflict since 1917.

HMS Belfast

Museum

The HMS Belfast warship is a floating museum which was originally a Royal Navy light cruiser. It became a branch of the Imperial War Museum in 1978. The ship is permanently moored on the Thames river next to Tower Bridge. The museum tells the personal stories of the crew who lived and served on board during the Second World War.

Battle of Britain Memorial

Monument/Memorial

The Battle of Britain Memorial can be found at Capel-le Ferne on the coast of Kent, England. It features one central statue of a pilot and the Christopher Foxley-Norris Memorial Wall. The Memorial was opened by the Queen Mother in 1993 and is dedicated to those who fought the Battle of Britain from July 10, 1940 to October 31, 1940.

Battle of Britain Bunker

Point of Interest

Located on the former site of RAF Uxbridge, the Battle of Britain Bunker housed the Fighter Command No.11 Group Operations Room during the Second World War. The Operations Room was responsible for planning and coordinating the air defence of London and South East England.

Bletchley Park

Point of Interest

Bletchley Park in Buckinghamshire was the top secret home of the Codebreakers during WWII, where, among other codes, those generated by the German Enigma and Lorenz machines were decrypted. The grounds and historic buildings of Bletchley Park can be explored together with exhibitions on a variety of topics related to the history of the site.

Royal Navy Submarine Museum

Museum

The Royal Navy Submarine Museum is part of the National Museum of the Royal Navy and tells the story of the Royal Navy’s submarine service. Set on the site on the Submarine Service’s 20th century base on the Gosport side of Portsmouth Harbour, the museum is home to the Royal Navy’s very first submarine Holland 1, the only surviving WWII-era submarine HMS Alliance and midget submarine X24.

Solent Sky Aviation Museum

Museum

The Solent Sky Aviation Museum depicts the history of aviation in Southampton and its international importance in the Solent area in England. The museum exhibits over 20 airframes, dating from the golden age of aviation and the Second World War, including the Spitfire and the Supermarine S6.

Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial

Cemetery

The Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial site contains the remains of 3,812 of American soldiers who fell in the Second World War. A total of 5,127 names are recorded on the Walls of the Missing. Most of the victims died during the Battle of the Atlantic or in the strategic air bombardment of northwest Europe.

Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre

Museum

The Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre was opened to the public in 1998 on an original WWII airfield in Lincolnshire, England. The centrepiece of the museum is the Avro Lancaster NX611 ‘Just Jane’, one of three working Lancasters worldwide. Other aircraft, military vehicles and a large private collection of wartime photographs are on display in the museum exhibitions.

Sywell Aviation Museum

Museum

The Sywell Aviation Museum in Northamptonshire was opened in 2001 by the legendary aviator Alex Henshaw MBE. It provides information on the history of flying in Northamptonshire, from the early days to the Second World War. The extensive ordnance collection includes rockets, bombs, a loaded bomb trolley with authentic tractor, and other weapons.

The Military Intelligence Museum

Museum

The Military Intelligence Museum in Bedfordshire tells the history of British Military Intelligence from the Boer War onwards, with a main focus on the Intelligence Corps. The museum comprises different collections, including the Medmenham Collection, which highlights the use of 3D imagery in WWI, WWII, and the Cold War.

The Army Museum

Museum

The Army Museum in Paris, created in 1905, is one of the biggest museums of military art and history in the world. Its Contemporary Department retraces the story of the French Army from the period 1871 to 1945 and thus covers both World Wars. The Army Museum encompasses the Historial Charles de Gaulle and the Museum of the Order of the Liberation.

Museum of the Order of the Liberation

Museum

The Museum of the Order of the Liberation in Paris documents the history of the Free French Forces, the government-in-exile led by General Charles de Gaulle during WWII. The permanent exhibition presents more than 2,000 pieces retracing the journey of the Companions. The exhibit features three galleries: Free France, The Inner Resistance, and The Deportation.

Champs Élysées: Liberation parade (statue of De Gaulle)

Monument/Memorial

A statue of General Charles de Gaulle stands near the Champs Elysées in Paris, France. During the Second World War, the German forces in Paris surrendered on August 25, 1944. The next day de Gaulle paraded on the Champs-Elysées.

The Shoah Memorial Le Marais

Monument/Memorial

The Shoah Memorial in Paris city centre can be found in the district of Le Marais, where a large Jewish population lived at the beginning of WWII. The Memorial was inaugurated by President Jacques Chirac in 2005. The permanent exhibition examines the history of French Jews during the Holocaust. On display are authentic documents, photographs, video and audio recordings.

The Shoah Memorial Drancy

Monument/Memorial

The Shoah Memorial in Drancy was inaugurated in September 2012, opposite to the Cité de la Muette, about 10 kilometers from the centre of Paris. During WWII the Cité de la Muette served as an internment camp for the Jews of France before their deportation towards extermination camps. Drancy Shoah Memorial retraces the history and function of the camp as well as the daily lives of those interned there.

Mémorial des Martyrs de la Déportation

Monument/Memorial

The Mémorial des Martyrs de la Déportation can be found at the eastern tip of the Île de la Cité in Paris. The Memorial was inaugurated by Charles de Gaulle in 1962 and is dedicated to the 200,000 people who were deported from France to Nazi concentration camps during the Second World War.

1944 Radar Museum

Museum

The Radar Museum in Douvres was built on the grounds of a former bunker. The museum presents the history of the site and the use of radar during the Second World War. It features two different rooms detailing the story

Azeville Battery

Point of Interest

The Battery of Azeville can be found 7 km from Sainte-Mère-Eglise in Normandy. Built in 1941, it is one of the first buildings of the Atlantic Wall in France. The underground passageways and bunkers, which maintain some of their original camouflage, can be visited with a guided tour.

Urville Polish Military Cemetery

Cemetery

The Polish Military Cemetery in Urville-Langannerie, Normandy, is the only Polish cemetery of the region. The cemetery contains 696 graves, mostly from people who died during the capture of Caen and in the battle to close the Falaise gap.

Civilians in the War Museum

Museum

The Memorial Museum of Civilians in War in Falaise opened in 2016 and covers over 1,000 m² of exhibition. Each of the three floors focuses on a different theme: Occupation, Liberation and Reconstruction. The museum is dedicated to both the life and survival of civilians during WWII. Testimonies of survivors and a collection of objects and archives are presented.

Overlord Museum

Museum

The Overlord Museum can be found in Colleville-sur-mer just a short distance from Omaha beach. The museum retraces the period of the Allied landings in Normandy until the liberation of Paris on August 25, 1944. The museum’s collection displays personal items from individual soldiers and armoured fighting vehicles from the six armies in Normandy.

Omaha Beach Memorial Museum

Museum

The Omaha Beach Memorial Museum was built on the grounds of the American naval landing of June 6, 1944, 200 metres from Obama beach. The museum covers a surface area of 1,200 m² and presents a large collection of uniforms, personal items, weapons and military vehicles. All the exhibits displayed belonged to soldiers of WWII.

D-Day Experience / Dead Man’s Corner Museum

Museum

Two museums can be found in Saint-Côme-du-Mont: the D-Day Experience exhibits the American side and Dead Man’s Corner Museum, the German perspective. The museum tells the story of the liberators of Europe through an interactive route with the possibility to take part in virtual experiences and simulations.

Les Braves Omaha Beach Memorial

Monument/Memorial

Les Braves Memorial Monument can be found on the centre of Omaha Beach in Normandy, France. The monument consists of three elements: ‘The of Hope’, ‘Rise, Freedom!’ and ‘The Wings of Fraternity’. An explanation of the monument stands wings on the boulevard of Omaha Beach.

National Guard Monument Memorial

Monument/Memorial

The National Guard Monument Memorial can be found on Omaha Beach in Vierville-sur-Mer. The Memorial pays tribute to the National Guard Units which participated in the amphibious D-Day assault on 6 and 7 June 1944.

National Museum of Resistance

Museum

The National Resistance Museum of Luxembourg can be found in Esch-sur-Alzette, in the southeast of the country. The museum retraces the history of Luxembourg from 1940 to 1945 through photos, objects and artwork. It focuses, among other topics, on Nazi oppression and the liberation of the country in 1945. A section is devoted to the system of concentration camps and to the fate of Jews in Luxembourg.

National Museum of Military History

Museum

The National Museum of Military History in Diekirch, Luxembourg was created in 1984 by collectors and volunteers. The museum traces the course of the Second World War with a particular focus on the Battle of the Bulge. Through its collections of weapons, vehicles and diverse equipment, the MNHM illustrates the technical and logistic evolutions within the armed forces of the belligerent parties.

National Liberation Memorial Schumann’s Eck

Monument/Memorial

During the Battle of the Bulge, Schumann’s Eck was a significant crossroad where many American and German soldiers lost their lives. The National Liberation Memorial Schumann’s Eck was erected there on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the liberation of Luxembourg. The memorial contains several plaques of the American units involved in the battle.

Museum of the Battle of the Bulge & ‘Family of Man’ Exhibition

Museum

The Museum of the Battle of the Bulge in Clervaux illustrates the course of the Battle of the Bulge through documents and diaromas, military uniforms and authentic weapons. Since 1994 it has included the UNESCO registered photographic exhibition ‘The Family of Man’, made of 503 photos by 273 artists, and devised as a portrait of human life, from love and joy, to war, illness or deprivation.

Sandweiler German War Cemetery

Cemetery

The Sandweiler German war cemetery is a WWII cemetery located in southern Luxembourg. It contains the graves of 10,913 German soldiers who died during the Battle of the Bulge in winter 1944 and spring 1945. Of them 4,829 were buried in a mass grave.

Ardennes American Cemetery and Memorial

Cemetery

The Ardennes American Cemetery and Memorial can be found in Neupré, Wallonia. The Memorial is a stone structure bearing on its facade a massive American eagle and other sculptures. The cemetery contains the graves of 5,317 American soldiers, 65% of them being fallen airmen of the U.S. Air Force.

General Patton Memorial Museum

Museum

The General Patton Memorial Museum in Ettelbruck was inaugurated in 1995. The museum is dedicated to General George Patton, commander of the 3rd US Army, whose troops liberated the town in December 1944. More than 1,000 photographs and documents are displayed relating to the German invasion, as well as weapons and pieces of equipment discovered on the Ardennes battlefield.

December 44 Historical Museum

Museum

The December 44 Historical Museum can be found in La Gleize, in the northern part of the Belgian Ardennes. The museum, housed in a historic building, focuses entirely on the Battle of the Bulge, which was fought between December 1944

Liberation of Brussels

Point of Interest

On Sunday 3 September 1944, shortly before 20:00, the British Second Army entered Brussels by the Avenue de Tervuren. On the Boulevard de Waterloo, the liberators were welcomed by jubilant crowds of Belgians, celebrating the liberation of the capital city from the German occupation.

Kortrijk bombing

Point of Interest

In the course of 1944, Belgian cities suffered more and more from the devastating and methodic Allied bombings. The air raids aimed at the strategic points occupied by the Germans, but did not avoid cities adjoining these points. Numerous civilians were killed. The city of Kortrijk was bombed three times.

Courcelles Massacre

Point of Interest

In the morning of 18 August 1944 twenty Belgian civilians were killed at the town of Courcelles by members of the Rexist Movement, a group of ultra right Belgian civilians. After the Normandy landings in June 1944, tensions between German authorities, collaboration movements and the Resistance grew more intense, in particular in the Wallonian province Hainaut.

Commando Skorzeny in the Ardennes

Museum

At the end of the Second World War the Austrian SS-commander Otto Skorzeny was for the Allies ’the most wanted man in Europ’. During the Ardennes Offensive he commanded a special unit, that was trained to take bridges on the Meuse and to disorganize the Allied troops.

Baugnez Massacre

Point of Interest

On 17 December 1944 the German fighting unit (Kampfgruppe) Peiper killed 84 American prisoners of war at the crossroads of Baugnez near Malmédy. Though the reasons for these killings remain unclear, this massacre was part of a series of war crimes committed by the same unit during the previous and following days.

Martyred town of Houffalize

Point of Interest

Houffalize was a strategically located crossroads on the Ourthe River, right in the center of the Bulge, south of Liège and just north of Bastogne. The German troops occupied the town from 20 December 1944 to 16 January 1945. The Allied planes struck Houffalize many times. 189 Civilians died and 350 habitations were devastated.

Jack’s wood

Point of Interest

The small village of Foy, just four kilometers to the north of Bastogne on the road to Houffalize, was occupied by the Germans from 21 December 1944 to 13 January 1945. The American troops had installed in Jack’s wood in Foy, in their strive for the liberation of Bastogne.

Bastogne Barracks

Museum

The Bastogne Barracks Museum was opened in 2010. It is located in the barracks that accomodated the Allied Headquarters during the Ardennes Offensive in 1944. Restored parts of the barracks exhibit a collection of materials used in the fighting. The so called Nuts-basement shows the office where General McAuliffe spoke the famous word ‘Nuts’,that had a major influence on the outcome of the Offensive.

Bastogne War Museum

Museum

The Bastogne War Museum represents a new way to remember the Second World War in Belgium. It offers a fresh perception in a modern and interactive framework of the causes, events and consequences of the Second World War, with a special focus on the Ardennes counteroffensive: the Battle of the Bulge.

Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery

Cemetery

On the 57 acres of Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery and Memorial the remains of 7.992 American soldiers are interred. Most of these men lost their lives during the advance of the U.S. forces into Germany. The U.S. 1st Infantry Division liberated this site on 11 September 1944. A battlefield cemetery was established on 28 September 1944.

German War Cemetery Recogne

Cemetery

War is not only about battles, battlefields, winners or losers. It is also about mourning, souvenirs, reconstruction and commemoration. In the hamlet of Recogne, near Bastogne in Belgium, a German cemetery gathers the remains of more than 6,800 German soldiers from 17 to 52 years old, who died during the Second World War.

The La Roche Museum of the Battle of the Ardennes

Museum

The Museum of the Battle of the Ardennes tells the story of the battle and liberation of La Roche and nearby villages on the left bank of the River Ourthe during the allied counteroffensive between 3 and 16 January 1945. In 1944-1945 the town of La Roche was almost completely destroyed and 114 inhabitants were killed.

The Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and of Military History

Museum

The Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History, located in the Jubelpark (Jubileepark) in Brussels, presents thousands of unique and amazing objects, stemming from ten ages of military history. Not only uniforms and prestigious distinctions, but also works of art, musical instruments and an exceptional collection of planes, guns and tanks. One gallery is dedicated to the Second World War.

Monument of General Stanisław Maczek

Monument/Memorial

In the center of the small town of Beveren there is a bust of general Stanislaw Maczek. It reminds the citizens of the commander of the division which liberated their town and made sure it stayed intact.

Lommel Polish War Cemetery

Cemetery

“For our freedom and yours” – reads the inscription in Polish, French and Flemish. It is carved on the wall of memory, crowned with a six meter tall cross. It is located in the biggest Polish cemetery in Belgium. Those who lie there fought just for that.

Kazerne Dossin

Museum

In July 1942 Kazerne Dossin (Dossin Barrack), a former military base in Mechelen, was designated Sammellager, a transit camp for Jews, Roma and Sinti. Between July 1942 and September 1944, thousands of Jews and gypsies were transported from here to concentration camps in Germany. Nowadays, Kazerne Dossin is a Memorial, Museum and Documentation Centre on Holocaust and Human Rights.

National Memorial Fort Breendonk

Museum

Originally built to defend Antwerp, Fort Breendonk was a Nazi concentration camp from September 1940 till September 1944. Around 3,500 prisoners passed through this camp. Fort Breendonk is one of the best conserved concentration camps in Europe and is a symbol that perpetuates the memory of the suffering, the torture and the death of so many victims.

Centre Européen du Résistant Déporté / Struthof Camp

Museum

The Centre Européen du Résistant Déporté can be found on the site of the former Struthof concentration camp, near Natzwiller, in France. The Centre was inaugurated in November 2005 and is exclusively dedicated to the history of the former camp. The collections include photos, archival documents, original objects and drawings. Remains of the camp can be seen when leaving the museum.

Baugnez 44 Historical Center

Monument/Memorial

The Baugnez 44 Historical Center in Malmedy traces the course of the Battle of the Bulge with a focus on the massacre of Baugnez/Malmedy on 17 December 1944. The museum was founded to commemorate the 84 Americans who were killed in the massacre. The collection presents small stories and reconstructed scenes, authentic material, vehicles, pictures and movies.

Memorial Alsace-Moselle

Museum

The Memorial Alsace-Moselle in Schirmeck, France, retraces the history of the region of Alsace and Moselle from 1870 to the present day, with a particular focus on WWII and the totalitarian system. Part of the museum is dedicated to the French-German reconciliation and to European reconstruction after the war.

MMPark

Museum

MMPark is located in La Wantsenau, ten kilometres from Strasbourg, in Alsace, France. The exhibition covers an area which exceeds 7,000 m² and presents a huge collection dedicated to WWII and to the main belligerents. Hundreds of mannequins, armoured vehicles, trucks, motorcycles, personal belongings, an airplane, a German speedboat, and more are on display.

The dogfight above Ghent

Point of Interest

The respect Polish pilots enjoyed during the Second World War was well earned, as evidenced by winning a battle during the last major air offensive of the Luftwaffe in 1945 on New Year’s Day.

McAuliffe Memorial

Monument/Memorial

The McAuliffe Memorial in Bastogne is dedicated to the memory of General McAuliffe, defender of the city in 1944. The monument was carved by Miss Silvercruys, sister of the Belgian Ambassador to the US at the time. The work was inaugurated by the General in person. In 1947, the square where the memorial is standing was renamed McAuliffe Square.

Monument Patton

Monument/Memorial

The Monument Patton in Bastogne is dedicated to General George Patton, who broke the siege of Bastogne in December 1944. The monument stands at the Merceny Square.

101st Airborne Museum

Museum

The 101st Airborne Museum in Bastogne is housed in the prestigious building of the former officers’ mess of the Belgian Army, built in 1936. The museum retraces the course of the Battle of the Bulge, fought between December 1944 and January 1945. A collection of items from the battle, reconstructed scenes and mannequins are displayed.

German Military Cemetery / International Youth Centre Albert Schweitzer

Cemetery

The German military cemetery in Niederbronn-les-Bains contains 15,809 graves from the Second World War. The Centre Albert Schweitzer, inaugurated in May 2009, is an international meeting centre for school groups, associations and enterprises, connected to an historical place. The permanent exhibition ‘Fates of War’ tells the stories of twelve victims of WWII.

Commonwealth War Cemetery Hotton

Cemetery

The Commonwealth War Cemetery in Hotton, Wallonia contains 666 Commonwealth burials of the Second World War, 21 of them unidentified. Many of the burials date from the German counter offensive in the Ardennes in January 1945, while others date from May 1940.

Maginot Line Museum and Fort

Museum

The Schoenenbourg Fort is the most important Maginot Line fortification in Alsace, France. The fort has been open to the public since 1978. The barracks and kitchens, the command post, gun positions and other former locations can be visited. The museum presents documents on the history of the Maginot Line and on military life in a fort.

The House of European History

Museum

The House of European History in Brussels, Belgium was opened in May 2017 following an initiative of the European Parliament. The museum retraces the history of Europe since 1789 through different exhibitions available in all 24 official European Union languages.

The Atlantikwall Raversyde

Point of Interest

The Atlantikwall Raversyde in Oostende, Belgium features over 60 bunkers, observation posts and artillery positions of the German ‘Atlantikwall’, the defence line constructed by the Germans during WWII. The open-air museum is spread over two kilometres and constitutes one of the best preserved parts of the Atlantic Wall. The museum also displays uniforms and equipment used by the garrison.

Four-à-Chaux Fortress (Maginot Line)

Museum

The Four-a-Chaux is a Maginot Line fortress in Lembach, Alsace built between 1930 and 1935 and covering an area of 26 hectares. The guided visit of the fortress features the living quarters and equipment used to operate the cannons and moving turrets. It also provides information on the Maginot Line and the forts of the region.

City of Leopoldsburg and Liberation Trail

Point of Interest

Located in eastern Belgium on the border with the Netherlands and at a short distance from Germany, the municipality of Leopoldsburg became, in September 1944, the headquarters in advance of Operation Market Garden. Today Leopoldsburg’s Liberation Trail presents all the important WWII heritage sites in the vicinity. In addition, a brand new World War II museum is currently being developed: the Liberation Garden Museum should open its doors in May 2020.

Shelter Museum and Esch Casemate

Museum

The Musée de l’Abri et Casemate Esch in Hatten was built on the grounds of a former refuge for casemate crews, built in 1930 as part of the Maginot Line. The museum covers 3.8 hectares and depicts the violent battle that devastated Hatten in January 1945. A total of 28 restored and furnished rooms can be visited around the shelter.

Mons Memorial Museum

Museum

The Mons Memorial Museum opened in the spring of 2015. An area of 1,200 m² is devoted to the permanent exhibition, which provides information on the military history of the city of Mons, from the Ancien Régime to the Second World War. The museum invites visitors to reflect on the complex realities of the phenomena of war.

Neunhoffen-Dambach Casemate

Museum

The Casemate of Neunhoffen-Dambach is a vestige of the Maginot Line in Alsace, France. The casemate has been restored to its original state, depicting the daily life of a fortress crew and presents photographs from the period 1939 to 1945 in the Schwarzbach valley.

Lommel German War Cemetery

Cemetery

The German War Cemetery in Lommel is the largest German military cemetery in Western Europe, outside of Germany. Just over 39,100 German soldiers were buried here. Most of them fell during WWII but a small part of the 16 acres holds 542 graves from WWI that were formerly buried in a cemetery in Leopoldsburg, Belgium.

Memorial Museum of the Maginot Line of the Rhine

Museum

Memorial Museum of the Maginot Line of the Rhine, Marckolsheim commemorates the fierce fighting of 15, 16 and 17 June 1940, which resulted in the destruction of over 80% of the town. The original firing chambers, generating unit, sleeping quarters and command post can be visited. The museum presents photographs taken in 1939 and 1940 as well as original weapons and military vehicles.

Bulge Relics Museum

Museum

The Bulge Relics Museum in Vielsalm, in the Province of Luxembourg, in Belgium is dedicated to the Battle of the Bulge. The museum presents thousands of relics of the battle, most of which were found in the area.

Monument of the 1st Armoured Division

Monument/Memorial

Wanting to commemorate the 1st Armoured Division, the city of Sint-Niklaas ordered a monument from Zygmunt Dobrzycki, a Polish sculptor and painter renowned in France and Belgium. That is how the most original of the monuments commemorating general Maczek’s soldiers was created.

Memorial Museum of the Battles of the Colmar Pockets

Museum

Memorial Museum of the Battles of the Colmar Pockets can be found in the heart of Turckheim, in Alsace, France. The Museum-Memorial presents the testimony of the events of two long months of suffering around Colmar during the winter of 1944-1945.

Memorial Casement of Aschenbach

Monument/Memorial

The Casemate of Aschenbach in Uffheim is an interval infantry casemate of the Maginot Line, composed of two firing chambers. Between 1990 and 2005, the casemate was restored by the Memorial Ligne Maginot Association of Haute-Alsace. Today the association offers guided tours of the casemate and organises a military re-enactment show.

Dover

Point of Interest

At the frontline of England’s defences for many centuries, Dover has often been subjected to attacks from foreign invaders. During the Second World War, the area was set up as the base camp of the fictitious 1st U.S. Army Group (FUSAG), part of the top secret Operation Fortitude.

The Serret Museum

Museum

The Serret Museum in Saint-Amarin is located in a former administrative tribunal which was transformed into a military hospital by the French during the First World War. Two rooms of the museum are devoted to military collections retracing WWI and to the Alsatian resistance in 1940-1945. A collection of mannequins in military uniform, different types of guns and other war artefacts are displayed.

Dungeness

Point of Interest

Dungeness, located in Kent on the south-east coast of England, became a key site in Operation Pluto. During this operation, 700.000.000 litres of fuel were delivered through pipelines beneath the Channel to the Allied troops in mainland Europe. This was one of wartime’s greatest feats of engineering.

Mulberry Harbour construction site

Point of Interest

As part of the planning for Operation Overlord, it was decided that artificial harbours would be needed in order to offload the heavy and bulky cargo needed to mount a successful invasion of Normandy. These harbours were built in Britain, towed across the channel and then assembled by the army once in the waters surrounding France.

Southwick House, Allied Naval Headquarters

Point of Interest

During the Second World War much of the Allied planning for operations was conducted in London. The plans for Operation Overlord (D-Day) were finalised at Southwick House in Hampshire. This became the headquarters of the main Allied commanders, led by General Eisenhower. The whole of the village was taken over by the Allied command.

Lorraine American Cemetery and Memorial

Cemetery

The Lorraine American Cemetery covers 113.5 acres and comprises 10,489 graves of American soldiers, most of whom were killed while driving the German forces from the fortress city of Metz toward the Siegfried Line and the Rhine River. The memorial, which stands on a plateau to the west of the burial area, shows ceramic operations maps with narratives and service flags.

Portsmouth Quay House

Point of Interest

As the Embarkation Area Headquarters for the Portsmouth sector during the D-Day campaign, Quay House was central to the successful launching of the campaign. Organising the launches of the allied troops from four areas across Portsmouth to the beaches of Normandy, France, military personnel at Quay House played a vital role in ensuring the campaign ran efficiently.

Royal Naval Hospital Haslar

Point of Interest

The Royal Naval Hospital Haslar was a key site for the treatment of soldiers returning from Normandy, injured in action during D-Day and in subsequent fighting. Run by the United States Military during 1944 and 1945, the staff treated both Allied soldiers and German prisoners of war, before they were transferred to other hospitals around Britain.

Dover Castle

Museum

At the first phase of the Second World War, the tunnels of Dover Castle housed the command centre of the great evacuation of Dunkerque (Operation Dynamo). Later, Dover Castle and the surrounding area were also used as the notional centre of the fictitious 1st U.S. Army Group (FUSAG). From here misleading radio signals were broadcast as part of Operation Fortitude South.

The D-Day Story

Museum

Re-opened in April 2018, the D-Day Story takes the visitors through the build up to the event, D-Day itself and the Battle of Normandy. The story is told through the perspectives of the people involved using objects, interactives and video. The impressive 83-metre long Overlord Embroidery offers a fantastic finale to the visit.

Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch Railway

Point of Interest

During the Second World War, the Romney Hythe and Dymchurch Railway was used to deliver troops along the coast. The station was also pivotal in the delivery of components to create a pipeline across the Channel as part of Operation Pluto, delivering much needed fuel to the Allied troops in France.

Churchill War Rooms

Museum

The Cabinet War Rooms, beneath London, were key places in the planning of Allied forces from 1940 onwards. It was here that 115 Cabinet meetings were held under the direction of Winston Churchill. The Map Room was particularly significant and was manned by officers from each of the armed forces, who would produce a daily intelligence summary.

National Memorial Arboretum

Monument/Memorial

The National Memorial Arboretum is the centre of remembrance in the U.K. Here you find the Normandy Campaign Memorial, a permanent site of remembrance for the 156,000 troops who landed in northern France in 1944. The memorial was funded by The Spirit of Normandy Trust in conjunction with the Normandy Veterans’ Association.

New Forest National Park

Point of Interest

The New Forest National Park, on the south coast of England, was an important base of operations in the build up to D-Day. The natural camouflage afforded by the woodland and its location on the English Channel made it an ideal place to construct Mulberry Harbours and to hide troops preparing for the invasion.

Landing at Salerno

Point of Interest

The Allied landing at Salerno on 9 September 1943 coincided with the proclamation of the armistice of the Kingdom of Italy and marked the beginning of the liberation campaign of the Italian mainland. It failed to enforce a quick advance to Rome and gave way to the bloody operations centred around Monte Cassino.

Liberation of Rome

Point of Interest

Rome was the first capital to be liberated from Nazi German occupation on 4 June 1944. Rome had been declared an open city which meant that it could be captured without any fighting. This was a welcome relieve after the heavy fought campaign of Cassino.

Beachhead at Anzio

Point of Interest

On 22 January 1944 the Allied forces landed at Anzio. The invasion was intended to outflank German defence forces on the Gustav Defence Line and strike directly for Rome. The operation failed and the invasion force was pinned down around Anzio until the end of May.

Battle of Monte Lungo

Point of Interest

On 13 October 1943 the Kingdom of Italy declared war on Germany and was recognized as a cobelligerent by the Allies. The Battle of Monte Lungo, that took place between 8 and 16 December 1943, was the first engagement of the Royal Army fighting alongside the Allied forces in Italy.

Campo della Memoria in Nettuno

Cemetery

The Allied landing at Salerno on 9 September 1943 coincided with the proclamation of the armistice of the Kingdom of Italy and marked the beginning of the liberation campaign of the Italian mainland. It failed to enforce a quick advance to Rome and gave way to the bloody operations centred around Monte Cassino.

Polish Military Cemetery Monte Cassino

Cemetery

The Polish Military Field of Honour at Monte Cassino holds the graves of 1,052 soldiers of the 2nd Polish Army Corps who died in the Battle of Monte Cassino, fought from 17 January until 18 May 1944. The cemetery also holds the grave of the Polish commander General Anders who died in London in 1970.

Beach Head Commonwealth War Cemetery

Cemetery

The Beach Head War Cemetery near Anzio is a Commonwealth Cemetery of the Second World War. In all, the cemetery contains 2,316 graves, 291 of unknown soldiers. 1,917 graves belong to soldiers from the United Kingdom, followed by 68 Canadian graves. The other casualties are from Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India.

Italian War Cemetery, Mignano Monte Lungo

Cemetery

The military shrine at Mignano Monte Lungo is located at the site of the first battle between the Italian Royal Army and the German army. The cemetery houses the graves of 974 Italian soldiers that fell during the Italian Campaign after Italy joined the Allies in September 1943.

Monte Cassino Abbey

Point of Interest

The abbey of Monte Cassino was founded in the 6th century by St. Benedict. During the Second World War it formed a key part of the German Gustav Line. On 15 February 1944 the abbey was bombed by the Allies who wrongly believed that it was being used as a German observation post.

Luxembourg American Cemetery

Cemetery

The Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial, located in Hamm and established on 29 December 1944, contains the remains of 5,076 Americans. Most of them died during the so called Battle of the Bulge. Among these graves is the one of the famous hero of the Bulge, the American General George Patton.

Bundeswehr Museum of Military History

Museum

The Military History Museum in Dresden, Saxony is one of very few museums in Germany that has German war equipment from both World Wars. Some of the most famous large items in the museum include a V2 flying bomb and Germany’s first submarine. The museum aims to explain how the military, armies and war influenced politics and society, and vice versa.

German Tank Museum

Museum

The German Tank Museum in Munster, Germany was constructed in 1983. On display are tanks, military vehicles and uniforms, weapons and small arms, medals, decorations and other military equipment from the First World War to the present day.

Historical Technical Museum, Peenemünde

Museum

The Historical Technical Museum in Peenemünde was built in 1991 on the grounds of the former German development centre where the V1 and V2 rockets were constructed. The museum reconstructs the history of the creation and use of these weapons. Different exhibitions display who worked in Peenemünde, how the people lived, and why these weaponry projects were carried out.

Nazi Forced Labour Documentation Centre

Museum

The Nazi Forced Labour Documentation Centre in Schöneweide opened in 2006. It is the last well-preserved former Nazi forced labour camp. ‘Barack 13’, one of the first buildings of the camp, is open to the public for guided tours. The centre contains two permanent exhibitions documenting the fate of forced labourers during the Second World War.

Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

Museum

The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe or Holocaust Memorial, in Berlin honours the Jewish victims of the Holocaust during the Second World War. The memorial was designed by architect Peter Eisenman and engineer Buro Happold. It was inaugurated on 10 May 2005, sixty years after the end of the war.

Topography of Terror

Museum

The Topography of Terror in Berlin stands on the site of the main organs of Nazi terror between 1933 and 1945, including the Gestapo, the SS leadership, the security services of the SS and the main office of the ‘Reichssicherheitshauptamt’. The main permanent exhibition presents these institutions and the crimes they organised. A second exhibition examines Berlin’s role as the capital of the Third Reich.

Documentation Center Nazi Party Rally Grounds

Point of Interest

The Documentation Center Nazi Party Rally Grounds in Nuremberg, Germany stands on the site of the unfinished Congress Hall of the former Nazi party rallies. The permanent exhibition, ‘Fascination and Terror’, covers 13,000 m² and examines the causes, the context and consequences of the National Socialist regime of terror. The exhibition is supplemented by an educational programme and special exhibitions.

Wewelsburg 1933-1945 Memorial Museum

Museum

Wewelsburg 1933-1945 Memorial Museum is the contemporary history section of the Wewelsburg District Museum in Büren, Germany. The exhibition ’Ideology and Terror of the SS’, located in the former guardhouse at the castle’s forecourt, presents the history of Wewelsburg between 1933 and 1945.

Provence Landing Memorial

Museum

The Memorial Museum of the Landing in Provence can be found in Toulon and was inaugurated in 1964 by General de Gaulle during his presidency. The museum presents the story of the liberation of southeast France in August 1944. On display are audiovisual presentations, archival videos, models and a collection of objects of the landing in Provence.

Colditz Castle and Museum

Museum

The Colditz Castle (Schloss Colditz) in the town of Colditz, in Saxony, Germany served as a Prisoner-of-War Camp for Allied officers between 1939 and 1945. The Museum Schloss Colditz, established in the castle, exhibits escape artefacts and uniforms of Allied POWs and provides information on their legendary escape

National Museum of the Marine

Museum

The National Museum of the Marine in Toulon traces the history of the arsenal of Toulon. Visitors are welcomed by the former monumental door of the arsenal. The museum preserves and exhibits an exceptional collection of models of vessels, as well as a galley model.

Camp des Milles Memorial

Museum

The Camp des Milles Memorial in Aix-en-Provence opened in 1993 and serves as both a museum and a place of memory. The Memorial was built on the grounds of a former French internment camp which was constructed in 1939. The Memorial offers an educational approach and aims to reinforce the vigilance and responsibility of citizens toward racism, anti-Semitism and all fanaticisms.

The Bunkermuseum

Museum

The Bunkermuseum in Hamburg, Germany is located in an original air-raid shelter used during the Second World War. The museum explains how life was in the bunkers during bombardments, through personal reports of people who lived there, documents and large-scale photographs.

National Necropolis of Luynes

Cemetery

The national necropolis of Luynes, located a few kilometres south of Aix-en-Provence, was built from 1966 to 1969. Buried here are 11,424 soldiers who fell in fighting during the First and the Second World War. Among the fallen, 3,077 died in the wake of the landing in Provence during WWII.

German Naval Museum

Museum

The German Naval Museum tells the history of the naval town of Wilhelmshaven, Germany from 1869 and including both World Wars. The WWII artefacts’ collection includes a Seehund, a two-man submarine, a barrel of the Kreuzer Köln, a ship bell, and other items. A cruise tour from the museum is also available.

Memorial Centre of Oradour-sur-Glane

Museum

The village of Oradour-sur-Glane in Haute-Vienne, France became the scene of a Nazi war-crime on June 10, 1944. Soldiers of the Der Führer Regiment of the 2nd Waffen-SS Panzer Division Das Reich destroyed the village and killed a total of 642 men, women and children, leaving only a few survivors. To this day there is no universally accepted explanation for the massacre.

National Necropolis of Boulouris

Cemetery

The national necropolis of Boulouris in Saint-Raphaël in southern France was inaugurated on August 15, 1964 by General Charles de Gaulle. Buried here are 464 combatants of all origins and all denominations belonging to the 1st French Army commanded by General de Lattre de Tassigny, killed during the landing of Provence.

The Rhone American Cemetery and Memorial

Cemetery

The Rhone American Cemetery and Memorial in Draguignan can be found along the route of the U.S. Seventh Army’s drive up the Rhone Valley. The cemetery covers 12.5 acres and was established on August 19, 1944 after the U.S. Army’s landing in the south of France. It contains the graves of 861 American soldiers who fell during WWII.

The History Museum Jean Garcin: 1939-1945 the Call of Liberty

Museum

The History Museum Jean Garcin in Fontaine-de-Vaucluse opened in 1990. It offers a multidisciplinary approach to the period of 1939-1945: historical, literary and artistic. A collection of more than 10,000 objects and documents evokes the daily life of French citizens during the occupation, with a focus on the Resistance in Vaucluse.

ELDE-Haus NS-Documentation Center Cologne

Monument/Memorial

From 1935 to 1945 the EL-DE House was the headquarters of the Gestapo of Cologne, Germany. The documentation centre was founded in 1979 and serves in equal part as a memorial of the victims of the Nazi regime and as a research centre documenting Cologne’s history during the Nazi era

Berlin 1939–1945 Commonwealth War Cemetery

Cemetery

The Commonwealth war cemetery in Berlin contains 3,595 graves from the Second World War, 397 of them unidentified. The majority of the persons buried there were airmen lost in the air raids over Berlin and the towns in eastern Germany.

Ludendorff Bridge and Peace Museum

Museum

The Peace Museum was built in the towers of the Bridge at Remagen (Ludendorff Bridge), one of two remaining bridges across the Rhine River in Germany in March 1945. The museum was built in 1980 and presents the history of the bridge through a video documentary, photos, newspapers and artefacts.

House of the Wannsee Conference

Monument/Memorial

The building of the House of the Wannsee Conference in Berlin was used as a SS guest house during the Second World War. It currently houses a memorial whose permanent exhibition, ‘The Wannsee Conference and the Genocide of European Jews’, provides information on the history of the persecution of Jews.

German Resistance Memorial Center

Museum

The German Resistance Memorial Center is located in Berlin at the historic site of the attempted coup of July 20, 1944 against Hitler. The museum includes different exhibitions highlighting specific topics about the resistance in Germany. The permanent exhibition ‘Resistance against National Socialism’ was opened in July 2014 to document the social breadth and ideological diversity of the resistance against dictatorship.

Deutsches Historisches Museum

Museum

The Deutsches Historisches Museum in Berlin tells the story of 2,000 years of German history. The permanent exhibition comprises around 7,000 historical exponents providing information on people, ideas, events and historical developments in Germany. The main floor area is devoted to the Weimar Republic, the Nazi regime, the post-war period and the history of the two German states from 1949 to the reunification in 1990.

Jewish Museum Berlin

Museum

The Jewish Museum in Berlin opened its doors in 2001 and serves as a reflection centre on Jewish history and culture. Changing temporary exhibitions depict a broad range of themes, ranging from cultural history to contemporary art installations. The new permanent exhibition, which is currently being remodelled, is expected to open in 2019.

The House of History

Museum

The House of History in Bonn, Germany was inaugurated in 1994. More than 7,000 exhibits representing contemporary history are spread over a surface of 4,000 m2. The permanent exhibition depicts the political, cultural and economical development of Germany since the end of the Second World War in 1945.

Zeitgeschichtliches Forum Leipzig

Museum

The Zeitgeschichtliches Forum in Leipzig, Germany was built in 1999 with the aim of presenting Germany’s history since the end of WWII. The museum displays one permanent exhibition and up to three temporary exhibitions every year. The permanent exhibition offers

Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site

Museum

The Memorial Site of Dachau concentration camp was established in 1965 on the grounds of the former camp. The main exhibition focuses on the fate of the prisoners.

Bergen-Belsen Memorial

Monument/Memorial

Bergen-Belsen was a Nazi concentration camp in Lower Saxony, Germany. Between 1942 and 1945, thousands of people died in the camp, with up to 35,000 dying of typhus. The memorial and its museum display photos, videos and written stories of the survivors. The permanent exhibition covers an area of 1,500 m² spread over two floors and retracing the history of the camp.

Buchenwald Memorial

Monument/Memorial

Buchenwald concentration camp was built in July 1937 near Weimar, in central Germany. More than 56,000 died there as the result of torture, medical experiments and consumption. With different exhibitions, an archive and a library, the Buchenwald Memorial is the largest German concentration camp memorial. It also invites visitors to reflect on the extent of the crimes committed.

Mittelbau-Dora Memorial

Monument/Memorial

Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp was established in 1943 near Nordhausen in Thuringia, Germany. It served as a subcamp of Buchenwald concentration camp. The Memorial is operated by the Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation. It includes one permanent exhibition and several changing special exhibitions providing information on the camp history.

Memorial and Museum Sachsenhausen

Monument/Memorial

The Sachsenhausen concentration camp was built in the summer of 1936 in Oranienburg, in the region of Brandenburg, Germany. Between 1936 and 1945, more than 200,000 people were imprisoned there. The Memorial and Museum Sachsenhausen, which was opened in 1961, comprises different permanent exhibitions. The remnants of buildings and other relics of the camp can be seen.

Neuengamme Concentration Camp Memorial

Monument/Memorial

Neuengamme concentration camp was established in 1938 as a subcamp of Sachsenhausen. Neuengamme became an independent camp in 1940. More than half of the approximately 100,400 prisoners of the camp, who were mostly foreign nationals, did not survive Nazi persecution. Neuengamme Memorial, which was inaugurated on the 60th anniversary of the camp’s liberation in May 2005, encompasses the entire grounds and 17 original buildings of the former camp.

Flossenbürg Concentration Camp

Monument/Memorial

The Flossenbürg concentration camp existed between 1938 and 1945 in northeast Bavaria, Germany. More than 96,000 prisoners passed through the camp and 30,000 of them died there. The site developed from a cemetery to a memorial, comprising one main exhibition built in 1982 and dedicated to the commemoration of the victims of the camp.

Ravensbrück Memorial Site

Monument/Memorial

The Ravensbrück Concentration Camp was the largest concentration camp for women on German soil. Between 1939 and 1945 around 132,000 women and children, 20,000 men and 1,000 adolescent girls and young women were imprisoned there. Ravensbrück Memorial presents the camp’s history in various exhibitions and commemorates the fate of the former prisoners.

The artificial harbor of Arromanches

Point of Interest

While preparing for Operation Overlord, the Allied strategists decided they needed two artificial, pre-fabricated ports in Normandy. These were considered essential for bringing reinforcements and equipment to the Continent. The remains of the port of Arromanches are still visible today as silent witnesses to this bold gamble and stunning technical achievement.

The British Airlandings

Point of Interest

In the early hours of D-Day, the British 6th Airborne Division was dropped behind the German coastal defences. Its mission was to gain control of the area between the Orne and Dives rivers and to prevent German counter attacks against the Allied landings on the beaches of Normandy. Despite difficult conditions, its objectives were already achieved at dawn.

The 15th Scottish Infantry Division in Normandy

Point of Interest

On 14 June 1944, the 15th Scottish Infantry Division landed in Normandy on Sword Beach. On 26 June they fought on the front line, engaged in Operation Epsom to seize the city of Caen. Despite heavy losses, the men successfully participated in major Anglo-Canadian offensives in Normandy before fighting in Belgium and the Netherlands.

The 51st Highland Division in Normandy

Point of Interest

On 6 June 1944 the 51st Highland Division landed in Normandy on Gold Beach. The men were at the front line in the city of Douvres-la-Délivrande in Normandy and later on the east of the Orne River in a sector held by the 6th British Airborne. The Division took part in the operations Goodwood and Totalize. They also fought for the liberation of Le Havre.

The U.S. Airlandings in Normandy

Point of Interest

Shortly after midnight on 6 June 1944, D-Day began with the landing of American and British airborne troops on French soil. Two U.S. Airborne Divisions were tasked to establish a bridgehead in the sector of Sainte-Mère-Église, to back up the landing of the U.S. infantry on Utah Beach.

Longues-sur-Mer German battery

Point of Interest

The German artillery battery at Longues-sur-Mer was perfectly located to oppose the landings of 6 June 1944. Its guns were positioned right between Omaha and Gold Beaches. On D-Day, this battery fought a duel with the Allied fleet before it was silenced at sunset.

The battle for Caen

Point of Interest

On D-Day Caen was an important Allied objective as it was an essential road hub, strategically astride the Orne River and Caen Canal. The Germans defended this stronghold with all their power. It took six weeks of fighting and heavy shelling to capture the capital of Normandy. 30,000 Anglo-Canadian soldiers and 3,000 civilians lost their lives.

Gold Beach

Point of Interest

On D-Day, Gold was the code name for the beach where the 50th British Infantry Division was to land. It was located between Ver-sur-Mer and Asnelles on the Normandy coast. Despite fierce resistance from some German strongholds, the 50th Division accomplished the farthest breakthrough inland of all Allied seaborne forces, as it came close to Bayeux that same day.

Utah Beach

Point of Interest

Utah Beach was the codename of D-Day’s westernmost landing beach. Here the U.S. 4th Infantry Division came ashore. The Utah Beach landing was quite successful, partially thanks to the Airborne troops who prevented any significant counterattacks against the landing area.

Sword Beach

Point of Interest

Sword was the code-name for the easternmost of the five landing beaches in Normandy. Reinforced by commandos and supported by specially adapted tanks, the 3rd British Infantry Division landed here. The men were to gather up with the 6th Airborne Division and capture Caen. This last objective was finally achieved a month later on 9 July.

Pointe du Hoc

Point of Interest

Pointe du Hoc is a high point between two of the five D-Day landing beaches, Utah and Omaha. It is renowned for the daring assault conducted on 6 June 1944 by the 2nd U.S. Ranger Battalion in an effort to neutralize the German artillery battery there.

Omaha Beach

Point of Interest

Omaha is the most renowned of the five landing beaches of D-Day, 6 June 1944. On this 6-km-long beach the U.S. troops had to deal with German defences that were still virtually intact. They suffered heavy losses and came close to disaster.

Juno Beach

Point of Interest

Devolved to the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, Juno Beach stretched from Graye-sur-Mer to Saint-Aubin-sur-Mer. On D-Day, despite the difficulties to neutralize some German strongpoints and a relatively high casualty rate, Canadian troops were able to penetrate deep inland before being blocked overnight northwest of Caen.

Belgian troops in Normandy

Point of Interest

The Belgian 1st Infantry Brigade led by Colonel Piron landed in Arromanches on 8 August 1944. Operating under the command of the 6th British Airborne Division and later under the 49th Infantry Division. The Brigade was engaged in the Sallenelles area on 16 August and freed the towns of Cabourg, Trouville, Deauville and Honfleur. It entered Brussels on 4 September 1944.

Dutch troops in Normandy

Point of Interest

The Royal Netherlands Princess Irene Brigade landed in Arromanches on 8 August 1944. Attached to the 6th British Airborne Division, the Brigade took part in Operation Paddle for the liberation of the Pays d’Auge area starting on 17 August. The Princess Irene Brigade was thus the first Allied unit to liberate Pont-Audemer on 26 August 1944.

Executions at Caen prison

Point of Interest

As soon as the news of the D-Day landings in Normandy was heard, the head of the Caen Gestapo decided to execute all Allied prisoners held at the Caen jail. 87 of them were shot in the prison courtyard throughout the day of 6 June 1944. Their bodies were never found.

Commando Kieffer

Point of Interest

On 6 June 1944, 177 French commandos landed in the first wave on Sword Beach in Colleville. Their objective was to capture the German fortified casino in Ouistreham and to join with troops of the 6th Airborne Division at Benouville. Led by Philippe Kieffer, these were the only French soldiers to land on French soil on D-Day.

Bayeux British Military Cemetery

Cemetery

With nearly 4.000 British soldiers buried here, the Bayeux War Cemetery is the largest British military cemetery of the Second World War in France. The adjacent memorial commemorates the unidentified Commonwealth soldiers who fell during the Battle of Normandy and recalls the close links between Normandy and Britain.

Bény-sur-Mer Canadian War Cemetery

Cemetery

The cemetery at Bény-sur-Mer, located a few miles from Juno Beach, is one of two Canadian military cemeteries in Normandy. In total they harbour 4.800 graves of soldiers killed during the fighting in the summer of 1944. The tombstones demonstrate the importance of Canadian participation in the liberation of France and Northwestern Europe.

Cherbourg and Liberation Museum

Museum

During the summer of 1944 Cherbourg was the most important harbour in the world. For the Allies it was the vital gateway to Europe, indispensable for supplying their campaign in Western Europe. Despite fierce German resistance, U.S. troops seized the city on 26 June 1944. The Liberation Museum reminds us of this dramatic episode.

Historial Charles de Gaulle

Museum

The Charles de Gaulle Historial presents the story of a man whose life is closely linked to the liberation of France. The museum uses high-tech multimedia equipment to unfold the career path of the general and help visitors understand the extent of Charles de Gaulle’s stamp on the history of France.

Juno Beach Centre

Museum

More than a museum dedicated to the landings on D-Day, the Juno Beach Centre is a place of memory representing a whole nation. It recalls the participation of Canada in the Second World War and its important contribution to the liberation of Western Europe. Canada itself emerged transformed from the conflict.

La Cambe German military cemetery

Cemetery

The cemetery of La Cambe is located near Omaha Beach. With around 21.200 graves it is the largest and best known German military cemetery in Normandy. In contrast to the Allied cemeteries, the setting is simple and sober, creating a serenity that urges the living to live in peace.

La Fière Bridge and Monument Iron Mike

Monument/Memorial

One of the essential missions of the 82nd American Airborne Division was to take the bridges spanning the merderet river, west of Sainte-Mère-Église. Between 6 and 9 June 1944, fierce battles took place there. To pay tribute to the numerous American paratroopers who lost their lives in this area, a statue baptized ‘Iron Mike’ was erected here.

Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum

Museum

Auschwitz-Birkenau was the largest Nazi concentration and extermination camp, where over 1.1 million men, women and children lost their lives during WWII. The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum was created by an act of the Polish Parliament in July 1947. Several hundred camp buildings and ruins stand on the 191-hectares museum grounds, including the ruins of the gas chambers and crematoria and over a dozen kilometres of fence.

Bełżec Museum Memorial Site

Museum

The German Death Camp in Bełżec was operational from March 1942 and it was the first place where stationary gas chambers were used to kill Jewish people. About 450,000 people were murdered in Bełżec camp. The Museum – Memorial Site was founded in 2004 as a branch of the State Museum at Majdanek, with the aim of documenting and commemorating the victims of the camp.

Historical Museum of the City of Krakow

Museum

The Historical Museum of the City of Krakow became an independent institution in 1945. Oskar Schindler’s Factory and The Eagle Pharmacy are two branches of the Museum, which respectively present the WWII-related exhibitions ‘Krakow under Nazi Occupation 1939–1945’ and ‘Tadeusz Pankiewicz’s Pharmacy in Krakow Ghetto’.

The Home Army Museum

Museum

The Home Army Museum in Krakow was established in 2000 and named after general Emil Fieldorf. It is the only institution in Poland promoting knowledge about the Polish Underground Movement and its armed forces.

Majdanek State Museum

Museum

Majdanek concentration camp in Lublin was built in 1941. An estimated 150,000 prisoners entered the camp and 80,000 of them were killed. The State Museum at Majdanek was founded in November 1944 on the grounds of the former concentration camp. The museum collection includes authentic objects from the camp and presents drawings depicting the persecution and extermination of Jews in the Lublin region.

Monument to the Ghetto Heroes

Monument/Memorial

The Ghetto Heroes Monument in Warsaw commemorates the first Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943. The monument, designed by Leon Suzin and sculpted by Nathan Rapoport in 1948, can be found in the square beside the POLIN Museum.

Kulmhof Museum

Museum

The German Kulmhof Death Camp in Chelmno operated over two periods: between 1941 and 1943, and between 1944 and 1945. The Museum of the former camp was founded in 1990 as a branch of the District Museum in Konin. It features several exhibitions and offers educational activities. Its main mission is to commemorate the fate of the Jews exterminated in Kulmhof Camp.

Museum of Struggle and Martyrdom (Treblinka)

Museum

The Museum of Struggle and Martyrdom was built on the grounds of the former camp in Treblinka, the second-largest extermination camp after Auschwitz-Birkenau. Between July 1942 and October 1943, about 900,000 Jews were killed in Treblinka. The Museum presents the conditions in which Poles were imprisoned and the history of resistance fighters during WWII.

Museum of the Former Death Camp (Sobibór)

Museum

The Nazi extermination camp in Sobibór started its operations in April 1942. About 170,000 Jews were killed there during WWII. The Museum of the Former Death Camp in Sobibór became a branch of the State Museum at Majdanek in May 2012. The exhibition depicts the origins of the camp and significant issues concerning its existence, including deportations, mechanisms of extermination, and plunder of property.

Oskar Schindler’s Factory

Museum

Oskar Schindler’s Factory in Krakow is a former metal item factory which was turned into a modern museum devoted to the wartime experiences in Krakow under the Nazi occupation. The museum consists of three parts: the permanent exhibition named ‘Krakow under Nazi Occupation 1939-1945’, temporary displays, and the screening room.

POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews

Museum

The POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw was opened in 2013. Its core exhibition is made up of eight galleries spread over 4000 m², retracing the history of Polish Jews from the Middle Ages to the present day. The POLIN Museum aims to preserve the memory of the history of Polish Jews and contribute to the mutual understanding and respect amongst Poles and Jews.

The Eagle Pharmacy Museum

Museum

The Eagle Pharmacy Museum, located within the limits of the former ghetto area in Krakow, was a former pharmacy run by the non-Jew Tadeusz Pankiewicz during the Nazi occupation. The museum commemorates the Holocaust of the Jews of Krakow and it tells the story of the ghetto and the role of the pharmacy in its daily life.

Warsaw Uprising Monument

Monument/Memorial

The Warsaw Uprising Monument in Warsaw, Poland was unveiled in 1989 and is dedicated to the uprising that occurred there in 1944. The monument, sculpted by Wincenty Kućma and designed by architect Jacek Budyn, features Polish partisans in the uprising.

The Wolf’s Lair

Museum

The Wolf’s Lair in Kętrzyn, Poland, was Hitler’s headquarters on the Eastern Front. The secret complex system of around 200 buildings was built in the fall of 1940. It included 50 huge bunkers, shelters, barracks, two airports, an electric power station, a railway station and a waterworks. Most of the complex was destroyed by the German army towards the end of the war.

D-Day Museum Arromanches

Museum

The Landing Museum (D-Day Museum) of Arromanches, Normandy explains the technical prowess used in the (pre)fabrication – in Britain – of the artificial port of Arromanches. A model and a film complement the educational presentation, allowing a better understanding of the visible remains that can be seen through a large window overlooking the bay.

Mémorial de Caen Museum

Museum

One of its kind in France, the Mémorial de Caen Museum gives the public the keys to understanding the Second World War, from its origins after the First World War to its latest consequences in 1989. It prompts the visitor to ask himself questions about this rapidly fading episode that changed the face of Europe and the world.

Memorial Pegasus

Museum

Two important bridges across the Canal de Caen and the Orne river were the first objectives taken by airborne troops in the Normandy campaign. Just after midnight on 6 June 1944 a small detachment of the 6th British Airborne Division surprised the German garrison guarding the bridges. The Pegasus Memorial recalls their bold action and the commitment of the Division in Normandy.

Merville Battery Museum

Museum

Just after midnight on 6 June 1944 a battalion of the 6th British Airborne Division was deployed to destroy the cannon of the German battery in Merville before they could harm the Allied forces landing on Sword Beach. The Franco-British museum located inside the battery highlights the merciless battle fought by the paratroopers.

Normandy American Cemetery

Cemetery

The impressive American Military Cemetery of Colleville-sur-Mer contains the remains of 9.387 American soldiers who fell during the Battle of Normandy. The cemetery reflects and honors the sacrifices that the USA made for the liberation of Europe. From this point one can overlook Omaha Beach, the deadliest landing beach of Operation Overlord.

Station Montparnasse

Point of Interest

During the liberation of Paris on 25 August 1944, general Leclerc, commander of the 2nd French Armoured Division, set up his command post in Montparnasse train station. Here the surrender of the German troops was proclaimed. A museum above the train station keeps the memory of the liberation alive.

The Crisbecq Battery Museum

Museum

The Saint-Marcouf (or Crisbecq) artillery battery played a major role during the D-Day landings on 6 June 1944, as it challenged the Allied fleet in front of Utah Beach and offered resistance to the progress of American forces. The museum enables visitors to discover how the defence of the German army along the ‘Atlantic Wall’ was organised.

The Airborne Museum Sainte-Mère-Église

Museum

The Sainte-Mère-Église museum was inaugurated in 1964 right where American paratroopers were involved in fierce battles during the night of 5 to 6 June and the following days. The museum holds an important collection of uniforms, weaponry and other war memorabilia. Two additional buildings opened in June 2014.

‘The Grand Bunker’– Atlantikwall Museum

Museum

The Atlantic Wall Museum is located inside the former German headquarters acting as fire control for the batteries covering the entrance of the Orne river and the canal connecting Caen to the sea. The 17-meter-high concrete tower has been fully restored to make it look like it was on 6 June 1944. The six floors have been recreated down to the last detail.

The Memorial Museum of the Battle of Normandy

Museum

The Memorial Museum of the Battle of Normandy in Bayeux relates how the Allies fought the Germans during the first ten weeks after D-Day. A wide range of vehicles, uniforms and military equipment gives visitors an impression of the everyday life of soldiers and civilians during that crucial period.

The Falaise pocket – The Memorial of Montormel

Museum

The last major battle of the Normandy campaign was fought in August 1944 in the so called Falaise-Argentan pocket, where the Allies encircled and destroyed a substantial part of the German forces. Nevertheless, tens of thousands of German soldiers managed to escape. A memorial on the spot traces the various stages of this bloody confrontation.

The Utah Beach D-Day Museum

Museum

The Utah Beach Landings Museum is situated on the site of a former German strongpoint that was crushed by the U.S. assault force on Utah Beach in the morning of D-Day, 6 June 1944. Among a lot of war related items, this museum features a rare Martin B 26 ‘Marauder’, an American medium-size bomber.

The Museum of 4th Commando and the Monument of the Flame

Monument/Memorial

The city of Ouistreham presents three commemorative sites dedicated to the history of D-Day: the German Bunker, the Museum of 4th Commando and the Monument of the Flame. The museum and the monument pay tribute to the French commandos landed on Sword Beach on 6 June 1944.

Battle of the Seelow Heights

Point of Interest

On 16 April 1945, Soviet troops attacked the German line of defense near the town of Seelow, situated 70 km east from Berlin. Because Soviet Marshal Zhukov had underestimated how high the Seelow Heights really were, his commanders were forced to find detours. Chaotic fighting ensued in the Oder Marsh and the Seelow Heights.

Battle of Schmidt

Point of Interest

On 12 September 1944, the first U.S. troops crossed the German border near the ancient city of Aachen, with units pushing into the Huertgen Forest to secure their right flank. Underestimating the German defences and the difficulties of the terrain they suffered heavy losses during a bitter confrontation starting on 2 November, known as ‘The Battle for (the town of) Schmidt’.

Berlin in the Air War

Monument/Memorial

Regular air raids on Berlin by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) started in 1944, with almost daily bombardments in February and March 1945. The bombing on 3 February 1945 focused on the government district and was designed to break the will of the Berlin people. This strategy failed until the end of April when the Soviet army conquered the city.

Berlin Declaration

Point of Interest

On 5 June 1945 the supreme commanders of the Western powers met for the first time with their colleague from the Soviet Union. In Berlin-Wendenschloss they signed the Berlin Declaration, proclaiming the unconditional surrender of Germany and the assumption of supreme authority by the four victorious powers.

Conquest of Tempelhof Airport

Point of Interest

On 26 April 1945, Berlin Tempelhof Airport came under the control of Soviet combat troops led by General Vasily Chuikov. With ready for take-off aircraft parked in underground hangars, Tempelhof provided the last escape route for the Nazi leadership and was therefore a priority in Chuikov’s attack plans.

Final Battle

Point of Interest

On 16 April 1945, the Soviet forces started to encircle Berlin in a pincer movement. Five days later first Soviet units entered Berlin from the east and fought their way to the city center. On 2 May, two days after Adolf Hitler committed suicide, all remaining German forces in Berlin were ordered to surrender.

Halbe Pocket

Point of Interest

On 22 April 1945, German troops withdrawing from the Seelow Heights, situated about 70 km east from Berlin, were encircled by the Soviet army in the Spreewald area near the village of Halbe. Instead of surrendering, the German forces tried, unsuccessfully, to break out westward. A staggering 40.000 lives were lost.

Potsdam Conference

Point of Interest

In the summer of 1945, world history was written in Potsdam, just outside Berlin. The three government leaders of the victorious powers met in person to discuss the new order in Europe and Germany. The results of the conference were contained in the Potsdam Agreement.

Rur Dam Schwammenauel

Point of Interest

In November 1944 the Allies launched Operation Queen with the goal of crossing the Rur river and then pushing forward to the Rhine. They realized that if the Rur floodgates were opened, the entire river plain would be inundated, rendering the river impassable. And indeed, as they withdrew, the Germans opened the Rur Dam Schwammenauel, thus hampering the Allied advance for two weeks.

Surrender of Berlin

Point of Interest

After the Soviet troops had occupied the Reichstag on 1 May 1945, German defeat was imminent. On 2 May, Soviet intelligence received a radio message from the German 56th Armored Corps requesting an armistice. Later that morning, corps commander General Helmuth Weidling signed the order of surrender, which was then conveyed to all soldiers of the Berlin garrison.

Unconditional surrender of Germany

Point of Interest

With the unconditional surrender of the German Armed Forces on 8 May 1945, the Second World War ended in Europe. The surrender took place in Berlin’s Karlshorst district, where the Soviet forces had set up their main headquarters after the fall of Berlin.

U.S. troops occupying Berlin

Point of Interest

The army of the Soviet Union conquered Berlin in April/May 1945. Two months later the Western Allied troops also entered the city. On 4 July 1945, the American Independence Day, U.S. troops officially took charge of their occupation sector in southwest Berlin. In September 1994, after almost 50 years, the Allied troops withdrew from Berlin.

War cemeteries (Huertgen Forest, Belgium, the Netherlands)

Cemetery

How many soldiers died is not known; there were some 10.000 German and 30.000 American dead in the Huertgen Forest battle area. While the German dead are interred at the local military cemetery, U.S. soldiers cannot be buried on enemy soil. U.S. soldiers found their final resting places at the American Cemeteries in Belgium, or the Netherlands.

Tempelhof Airport

Point of Interest

Tempelhof Airport’s main building is a protected historical landmark and a symbol of the eventful history of Berlin itself. It is an expression of Nazi ideology and served as a weapons production site using forced labour during the Second World War. The Berlin Airlift in 1948/49 made Tempelhof Airport a symbol of freedom. Nowadays it is part of the Tempelhofer Freiheit. The former airfield is currently developed into an urban park landscape.

Allied Museum

Museum

The Allied Museum tells a unique story: from the German defeat in the Second World War to the division of West and East Berlin between the three Western powers and the Soviet Union. Berlin became the most important scene of the struggle that is known as the Cold War.

Cecilienhof Palace

Museum

German Emperor Wilhelm II had Cecilienhof Palace built for his son Crown Prince Wilhelm and his wife, Crown Princess Cecilie. It was the last palace built by the Hohenzollern dynasty that ruled Germany until 1918. The use for the Potsdam Conference in 1945, made it world famous.

Church Vossenack

Monument/Memorial

During the month of November 1944 fighting between American and German soldiers took place inside the church of Vossenack. Today a commemorative plaque inside and an inscription on the church portal call these events to mind.

Friedrichstraße Railway Bunker

Monument/Memorial

The Friedrichstraße Railway Bunker was built to protect railway passengers. The bunker had room for 1.500 people. After the war the Soviet forces used it as a prison. At present it is devoted to contemporary art. The bunker can be visited by guided tours only.

Field Hospital Bunker Simonskall

Museum

The medical aid bunker Nr. 374 in Simonskall was built in 1938. Here four medics could give emergency treatment to about twenty to thirty wounded or sick soldiers. After the war the bunker first served as provisional housing for returning evacuees and later as a cellar for a private home. Access is very limited.

German-Russian Museum Berlin-Karlshorst

Museum

The German-Russian Museum is located at the site of the unconditional surrender of Germany on 8 May 1945 in Berlin-Karlshorst, marking the end of the Second World War in Europe. Today it is a place where two former wartime enemies jointly recall some of their common, albeit very violent history.

Halbe Forest Cemetery

Cemetery

The Halbe Forest Cemetery is one of the largest wartime cemeteries in Germany. More than 40.000 people died in this area during the last days of April 1945. Today, the Halbe Forest Cemetery is the resting place of some 24.000 victims of the Battle of the Halbe Pocket, including soldiers, civilians and Soviet forced labourers.

Huertgen War Cemetery

Museum

During the autumn and winter of 1944/45, a long and bloody battle took place in the Huertgen Forest. 3.001 mostly German victims of this bitter struggle have their final resting place at Huertgen War Cemetery.

Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church

Monument/Memorial

The Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church in Berlin-Charlottenburg was damaged in air raids in November 1943 and completely destroyed in April 1945. The ruined tower was preserved as an anti-war memorial. The modern church was consecrated on 17 December 1961.

Kall Bridge

Monument/Memorial

When, in November 1944, worn-out American units were forced to retreat from the village of Schmidt, they had to pass the Kall bridge under fire. In the midst of the bitter fighting, Dr. Stüttgen, a German medical officer, organized several short cease-fires. As a result, wounded soldiers from both sides could be treated by German doctors and paramedics.

Kleve War Cemetery

Cemetery

The Reichswald Forest War Cemetery is the largest Commonwealth cemetery in Germany. It holds the remains of 7.654 soldiers, mostly airmen from the Royal Air Force and paratroopers. The cemetery is situated in the Reichswald, an ancient forest on the Dutch-German border that was the scene of heavy fighting in February 1945.

Lucius D. Clay Headquarters

Point of Interest

The Clay Headquarters compound was built for the German Air Force before the Second World War. The U.S. Military Government took control of the complex in 1945 to accommodate the offices of the military governor General Lucius Clay, who helped rebuilding Berlin and orchestrated the famous Airlift operations during the Soviet blockade of the city (1948-1949).

Memorial Plaque Schulenburgring 2

Monument/Memorial

Early May 1945 Schulenburgring 2 was a focal point of world history. In this building Soviet General Vasily Chuikov housed his headquarters. German General Helmuth Weidling, the commander of the Berlin garrison, signed the surrender order on the ground floor of the building.

Memorial plaque Niebergallstrasse 20

Monument/Memorial

A memorial plaque placed at a site in the Wendenschloss quarter of Berlin on Niebergall Street recalls a historic event. Here stood a villa called the Waldgaststätte (forest inn) where on 5 June 1945 the commanders-in-chief of the four victorious powers signed the Berlin Declaration referring to future dealings with occupied Germany.

The Wöbbelin memorial

Monument/Memorial

The Wöbbelin memorial sites recall the history of the concentration camp near Wöbbelin, 190 km northwest of Berlin. The satellite camp of Neuengamme concentration camp was located directly on the road between Wöbbelin and Ludwigslust and existed for just ten weeks, from 12 February to 2 May 1945.

Museum Huertgen Forest 1944 and in Peacetime

Museum

For the purpose of remembrance and warning Museum Huertgen Forest 1944 and in Peacetime (Museum Hürtgenwald 1944 und im Frieden) tells the story of the so-called Battle of Huertgen Forest – and its consequences for the local population. The museum is run by volunteers. Almost all objects in the exhibition were collected in the Huertgen Forest area after the war.

Pillboxes Ochsenkopf

Point of Interest

Between September 1944 and February 1945 American and German soldiers faced each other directly in the pillboxes at the Ochsenkopf. In the almost inaccessible forest the Germans were able to defend their fortified positions for a long time.

Reichstag Building

Point of Interest

The Reichstag was built between 1884 and 1894. It served as the seat of parliament in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic. During the Second World War the building was heavily damaged. Since 1994 it has been rebuilt and renovated. Nowadays, the Reichstag functions as the seat of the German federal parliament.

Seelow Heights Memorial

Monument/Memorial

The Seelow Heights Memorial Site and Museum has transformed a former battlefield into an internationally recognized place of remembrance, commemorating and documenting the Battle of the Seelow Heights in April 1945. It also shows how the biggest battle fought on German soil during the Second World War was incorporated into East German historiography.

Soviet Memorial Tiergarten

Monument/Memorial

The Soviet Memorial Tiergarten in the centre of Berlin commemorates the more than 80.000 Soviet soldiers who fell during the Battle of Berlin in the last weeks of the Second World War in Germany. Even though the Tiergarten memorial is located in the former British sector of Berlin, Soviet honor guards were sent every day to perform honorary guard duty. This tradition was maintained even during the harshest Cold War periods.

Soviet Memorial Treptow

Monument/Memorial

The Soviet War Memorial in Treptow Park is the largest war memorial in Berlin and indeed in Germany today. The imposing figure on top of the mausoleum depicts a soldier carrying a rescued German child. The memorial honours the approximately 80.000 Soviet soldiers killed during the conquest of Berlin.

Soviet-Russian Second World War Cemetery Simmerath-Rurberg

Cemetery

The Soviet-Russian Second World War Cemetery Simmerath-Rurberg holds the remains 2.322 Soviet citizens. Fifty-five of them rest in individual graves, the others in mass graves. Only a small number is known by name. Almost all of the buried were prisoners of war or forced labourers.

Vossenack German Cemetery

Cemetery

The Vossenack Cemetery was constructed on a strategic site, Hill 470, by the German War Graves Commission (Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge) during the years 1949 to 1952. Today the cemetery contains the graves of 2.347 war dead. Among those are 35 men who lost their lives during post-war operations as members of a ‘Ammunition Search and Removal Team’.

Vogelsang International Park

Museum

The Vogelsang complex was built as a National Socialist training institution before becoming an international military training area. Today, Vogelsang IP is an international place of active remembrance, where in addition to conveying historical facts about the Nazi era, issues regarding our present social life are addressed.

War Cemetery of the Mariawald Abbey

Cemetery

In the late 1930s the monks of Mariawald Abbey came into conflict with the Nazi regime and were evicted. During the battle of Huertgenwald the abbey was used as a field hospital. Many of the wounded could not be saved and died. 414 of them are still resting in what is now the War Cemetery of the Mariawald Abbey.

Trench lines in the Reichswald

Point of Interest

Operation Veritable was an Allied campaign aimed at driving the German army out of the Reichswald, a vast and dense forest marking the border between the Netherlands and Germany. The fighting was very intense and strongly resembled the trench warfare of the First World War.

The Torchbearer

Monument/Memorial

Vogelsang International Place is riddled with Nazi-symbols. Quite a few of them focus on the national socialist idea of a master race, the ‘Herrenmensch’. The most conspicuous symbol is the statue of the torchbearer, that it visible even beyond the perimeter of the Ordensburg. It borrows from Christian and Greek symbolism as well as the pagan idea of light.

Nazi Forced Labour Documentation Centre

Museum

The Nazi Forced Labour Documentation Centre in Berlin’s Schöneweide district opened in 2006. It is attached to the Topography of Terror Foundation. Located on the historic site of a forced labour camp, it recalls the 26 million men and women who worked for the Nazi state as forced labourers during the Second World War.

Berliner Unterwelten

Museum

The Berliner Unterwelten Association informs the public about Berlin history from an unusual perspective. Before and during the Second World War hundreds of bunkers and air raid shelters were built in the city. In the post-war years most of these installations were destroyed. But traces of the air raid shelters can still be found in Berlin.

The surrender of Westerplatte

Point of Interest

On 7 September 1939 the Polish forces defending the Military Transit Depot came once again under heavy fire. It was clear that further resistance was futile. The commanding officer had been under orders to hold the depot for 12 hours. After 7 days of fighting he decided to surrender.

The German battleship Schleswig-Holstein / The attack on the Westerplatte

Point of Interest

The obsolete German battleship Schleswig-Holstein played an important role at the outbreak of the Second World War. The ship moored in the port of Gdańsk under false pretences, and then, in the early morning of 1 September 1939, proceeded to bombard the Polish defensive positions on the Westerplatte Peninsula: the first shots of the Second World War.

The Ashes of Major Sucharski

Cemetery

In 1939 Major Sucharski commanded the small garrison that heroically defended the Westerplatte peninsula during the first week of the German invasion of Poland. In 1971 his ashes were reburied at the Westerplatte cemetery. The huge turn-out and the emotional public response heralded the importance of the Second World War memories for thousands of Poles.

The ‘new city’ of Gdańsk

Point of Interest

After the Second World War the German population was forced out of the now Polish city of Gdańsk, to be replaced by Polish nationals from all over the country, who brought their language and habits with them. On top of that the Communist Party came to power, affecting everyday life in Gdańsk even more.

The evacuation of Jews

Monument/Memorial

In June 1944, the Germans transformed Stutthof from a prison camp into a concentration camp. Over 50.000 Jews were deported to Stutthof, mostly women from Poland, Hungary and the Baltic states. The vast majority died under horrible circumstances.

The New Barracks

Monument/Memorial

The heavily reinforced barracks of the Westerplatte garrison were the backbone of the Polish defence. Here the armoury, dormitories and other important facilities were located. The complex was originally ‘T’ shaped, but after the war several parts of the building were destroyed, for example during the construction of the monument.

The massacre of Palmnicken

Point of Interest

In January 1945, most of the prisoners of the main Stutthof camp were forced to walk to Danzig/Gdansk and beyond. 13.000 inmates of several subcamps were sent on a seemingly similar death march, east to Königsberg. This march however ended in a singularly brutal massacre at the beach of Palmnicken.

The last days of the war in Gdańsk

Point of Interest

Apart from Allied air raids towards the end, the Second World War didn’t affect Gdańsk much. By the end of 1944 though, more than a million refugees from East Prussia arrived in the city hoping to escape the Soviet Army. During the final battle Gdańsk was almost completely destroyed.

Guardhouse nr. 1

Monument/Memorial

During the German assault on the Military Transit Depot, Guardhouse nr. 1 was the most important stronghold in the defence of the Westerplatte peninsula. The crew managed to hold out till the end. After the war the Guardhouse was moved about 40 meters to allow for the expansion of the harbour. It is now a branch of the Gdańsk History Museum.

Death marches

Monument/Memorial

Nervous about the approaching Soviet Army, the Germans decided to evacuate the Stutthof concentration camp in January 1945. The prisoners, already hungry and weak, had to walk for days in severe winter conditions, almost without food. Thousands of them died from exhaustion or were killed by the German guards.

Stutthof camp

Monument/Memorial

The Stutthof camp was planned long before the war broke out. It was built as a regional prison camp, but during the war the Nazi’s enlarged Stutthof and incorporated it in their overall camp system. Finally, Stutthof became a concentration camp that contributed in the attempted extermination of all European Jews.

Solidarity

Monument/Memorial

When in August 1980 the Gdańsk shipyard workers started a strike, they were convinced that only a strategy of non-violence could lead to success. Inspired by their charismatic leader Lech Wałęsa, they won the support of intellectuals in the opposition movement. This episode led to the founding of the first legal non-communist trade union; Solidarność.

Outbreak of the Second World War

Point of Interest

On 1 September 1939 German SS troops took possession of Polish buildings and institutions in the city of Gdańsk. Some 1.500 members of the Polish minority were arrested to be imprisoned, deported or executed. Many others were expelled from their homes and directed to central Poland. That same day the Nazis proclaimed the reunion of Gdańsk with the German Reich.

Pre-war Gdańsk

Point of Interest

The Treaty of Versailles established Gdańsk (Danzig) as a free city under the protection of the League of Nations. This solution was meant to guarantee that neither German nor Polish demands could provoke new conflicts. But frictions increased as Nazi Germany started its efforts to incorporate the free city.

Kurkowa City Prison

Point of Interest

During its history the City Prison in Gdansk housed all kinds of prisoners: criminals, but political prisoners as well. After the abolishment of the Free City of Gdansk by the Nazis in 1939, hundreds of intellectuals, democrats, freedom fighters and jews were incarcerated here. Many of them were subsequently sent to Piasnica or Szpegawsk, where they were executed.

Monument of the Coast Defenders

Monument/Memorial

In 1966 a 25-metre high monument was erected on the Westerplatte peninsula. The Communists used it mainly as a propaganda instrument. Not until many years later the monument became an important place of remembrance for the Battle of Westerplatte and the beginning of the Second World War in Europe.

Museum of Stutthof

Museum

Museum Stutthof is located in the former German Stutthof concentration camp. The museum preserves, researches and displays archival records and historical artefacts. Exhibitions and videos offer visitors a haunting insight into the lives of the 110.000 people that were imprisoned here during the Second World War.

Museum of the Second World War

Museum

The Museum of the Second World War was launched in November 2008 and is located in Gdańsk. The museum is situated 200 metres from the historic Polish Post Office and 3 kilometres across the water from Westerplatte Peninsula. The German attack on these places marked the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.

Warsaw Rising Museum

Museum

Opened in 2004, on the 60th anniversary of the eponymous event, the Museum of the Warsaw Uprising is the first narrative museum to be opened in Poland. The aim of the museum is to celebrate the heroism of the soldiers of the Home Army, and to tell the story of the Warsaw Uprising, this decisive moment in the history of the city.

The Cemetery of the Defenders of Westerplatte

Cemetery

After the Second World War the former deputy commander of the Military Transit Depot, captain Dąbrowski, initiated the building of a cemetery for the fallen during the German attack. At this cemetery the urn with the ashes of Major Sucharski was reburied in 1971.

The Polish Post Museum

Museum

The Polish Post Museum in Gdańsk was founded on 1 September 1979, on the 40th anniversary of the outbreak of the Second World War. It tells the story of the Polish community in Gdańsk between 1920 and 1939. The culminating point of the narrative is the story of 1 September 1939, when at 04:45 the no. 1 Polish Post and Telegraph Office was attacked by the Germans.

European Solidarity Centre

Museum

The European Solidarity Centre (ECS) in Gdańsk is not only a museum to promote awareness of the Solidarity movement and the anti-communist opposition in Poland and Europe, but also a centre for dialogue about the contemporary world.

“Westerplatte: A spa – a bastion – a symbol” outdoor exhibition

Museum

The exhibition is devoted to the history of the place that is commonly associated with the beginning of the 20th century’s greatest catastrophe, the Second World War. A place that, like Thermopylae before it, became the symbol of a heroic struggle against an overwhelming adversary. Yet the story of Westerplatte, as told by the Museum of the Second World War, is not limited to the defence of Poland’s Military Transit Depot in September 1939; rather, we travel back to the peninsula’s formation in the 17th century as a sandbar at the mouth of the Vistula and forward, all the way to the fall of Communism in Poland in 1989.

Inka Monument

Monument/Memorial

The monument to ‘Inka’ in Gdansk is dedicated to the memory of the Polish heroine Danuta Siedzikówna and all those others who took part in the anti-communist resistance after the end of the Second World War. The monument was erected in 2015.

Grave of Danuta Siedzikówna, alias ‘Inka’

Cemetery

During the communist regime in Poland many anti-communists were killed, among whom the 18 year old Danuta Siedzikówna, alias ‘Inka’, who gave her life in the struggle against the German and communist occupation of her home land. After the fall of Communism a search was started for the mortal remains of the victims, to give them the respect they deserved. The remains of freedom fighter Danuta Siedzikówna were found in 2014.

Polish Army Museum

Museum

Opened in 1920, the Polish Army Museum in Warsaw is the main institution preserving the historical relics of Polish military from the Middle Ages until now. With 250.000 historical objects in its collection it is the largest military museum in Poland.

ORP Blyskawica – Museum Ship

Museum

Launched in 1936, ORP Blyskawica is the oldest surviving destroyer in the world. The ship took part in several key operations of the Second World War, most notably Operation Overlord, the allied invasion of Normandy, which started the liberation of Western Europe. The ship currently became part of the open air Polish Navy Museum.

Battle of the Sloedam

Monument/Memorial

During the Second World War the Sloedam was the only connection between the former island of Walcheren and the South-Beveland peninsula. At that time the causeway of 1,200 meters long and only 45 meters wide was of utmost strategic importance. The Germans defended the Sloedam fiercly.

Breskens the German Dunkirk

Point of Interest

After the Allied break out from Normandy in August 1944 the German army had been in full retreat. With the capture of Antwerp on 4 September the German 15th Army was pushed into a pocket on the shore. The only way out for the German forces was an evacuation across the Scheldt river from the Dutch town of Breskens.

Hell’s Highway

Point of Interest

To secure the strategic bridges captured earlier by airborne forces, the Allied ground troops of Operation Market Garden, created a narrow front along a two-lane road heading north. This made their advance vulnerable to counterattacks on both flanks. Soon they came under constant, murderous fire. Therefore this route became known as ‘Hell’s Highway’.

John Frost Bridge

Point of Interest

The Bridge over the Rhine at Arnhem was the last bridge that needed to be captured during Operation Market Garden. If the Allies could capture this bridge the road to Germany would lay open. The task of capturing the Rhine Bridge fell to the British 1st Airborne Division.

Liberation from the East

Point of Interest

In March 1945 the Allies broke the German defences and crossed the Rhine. The strange situation now occurred that the Northern part of the Netherlands was liberated from the east, from German territory. At some points the German forces put up stiff resistance, while elsewhere they chose to surrender.

Men’s Island

Point of Interest

After September 1944 the Betuwe, the area between the Waal and Rhine rivers, became the fluid boundary between Allied and German territory. This half flooded no-man’s-land came to be known as ‘Men’s Island’ since almost all the women and children had been evacuated and the land was surrounded by water.

Operation Veritable

Point of Interest

Operation Veritable was part of an Allied pincer-movement aiming to clear the area between the Roer and Rhine rivers of German forces. British and Canadian units attacked from the north, while the Americans closed the trap from the south. By destroying dams in the Roer, the Germans tried to hamper the operation.

Operation Infatuate, the capture of Walcheren

Point of Interest

The last phase in the battle of the Scheldt was the capture of the island of Walcheren. Walcheren had been incorporated into the German Atlantic Wall and had been heavily fortified during the war. The Allied commanders therefore viewed the capture of Walcheren as the biggest obstacle in the clearing of the Scheldt estuary.

Operation Vitality, the capture of South-Beveland

Point of Interest

On 24 October 1944 the third phase of the battle of the Scheldt began with Operation Vitality. The goal of the operation was to clear the peninsula of South-Beveland of German forces. Once again the Allied forces would have to overcome not only the German defenders but difficult terrain as well.

The Battle of Nijmegen

Point of Interest

The city of Nijmegen played an important role in Operation Market Garden. With two bridges across the Waal river it was vital for the Allied advance towards Arnhem and Germany later on. On 20 September 1944 U.S. troops managed to capture both bridges and liberate the city.

The Battle of Arnhem

Point of Interest

To ensure the success of Operation Market Garden, the Allied forces had to capture the bridge in Arnhem. But the light-armed airborne forces stood no chance against two SS Panzer Divisions that happened to be in the area. After desperate fighting and many casualties the Arnhem bridge proved to be ‘a bridge too far’.

The crossing of the Rhine: Operation Plunder and Operation Varsity

Point of Interest

The final hurdle of the Rhineland Offensive was the Rhine itself. The crossing near Wesel (Operation Plunder) was one of several coordinated Rhine crossings. A million Allied soldiers participated. In support of the crossing, 14.000 paratroopers were dropped behind enemy lines (Operation Varsity). The operations were a complete success. Hitler’s days were numbered.

The failure of Operation Market Garden

Point of Interest

Operation Market Garden managed to liberate a large part of the Netherlands, but failed in its main objective: outmaneuvering the Germans with a surprise crossing of the Rhine. The Nijmegen-Groesbeek area, conquered during Market Garden, remained in Allied hands and served as a springboard for the successful Rhineland Offensive in February 1945.

The Reichswald

Point of Interest

The main objective of Operation Veritable was to clear the area between the river Maas (Meuse) and the Lower Rhine of German forces. The first obstacle they encountered was a vast, densely wooded area, the Reichswald, just inside Germany. German units had turned this forest into a deathtrap.

The German capitulation

Point of Interest

On 5 May 1945 German commander general Blaskowitz met with Canadian general Foulkes in Hotel de Wereld in Wageningen. There they negotiated the surrender document for all German forces in the Netherlands, which they signed the next day. The occupation of the Netherlands had come to an end.

The Hunger Winter

Point of Interest

During the harsh winter of 1944-1945 a large part of the German-occupied Netherlands suffered from severe shortages of food and fuel. This would result in the death of some 20.000 civilians. The famine, known as the ‘Hunger Winter’, would last until the surrender of German forces in May 1945.

Valkhofbunker

Point of Interest

In September 1944 the Allies launched Operation Market Garden with the goal of capturing several bridges in the Netherlands and to secure a quick advance towards the heart of Germany. The bunker in Valkhofpark was part of the German defence system of the crucial bridge over the Waal river in Nijmegen.

Airborne Museum ‘Hartenstein’

Museum

The Museum shows the course of events during the Battle of Arnhem. This took place in September 1944 in the area between Ede and Arnhem and formed part of the Operation Market Garden. British, American and Polish airborne troops were to take control of the river bridges from the Belgian border to Arnhem.

Airborne at the Bridge

Museum

The Battle of Arnhem, the biggest airborne landing operation of the Second World War, took place in and around Arnhem in September 1944. It formed part of Operation Market Garden. The goal of the Operation was for Polish, British and American airborne forces to capture the important bridges across the Dutch rivers so that ground troops could advance via these bridges. But the Operation failed…

Airborne Monument

Monument/Memorial

The Airborne Monument on Ginkel Heath in Ede is a concrete pillar with a copper eagle at the top with its wings spread as if in full flight. The plinth is shaped like a crystal with the pillar emerging out of it like a prism. There are three copper symbols on the pillar. The first is a winged parachute wearing a crown. The second, is the emblem of the Kings Own Scottish Borderers and the third, an image of a purple Pegasus (the mythological winged horse). At the foot of the pillar, there is a plaque made of natural stone and ten metres away, there is a large boulder with an inscription on it. The memorial is 3m high, 30cm wide and 30cm deep.

AVOG’s Crash Museum

Museum

The air forces of England, the United States and Germany had numerous different types of aeroplane in active service and remnants of a number of them are on show – for example, engines, propellors, undercarriages, wing panels, oxygen cylinders and cockpit instruments. In addition there are other items which were on board when the plane crashed, such as flying kit, navigational documents, guns, ammunition and radio equipment.

Airborne War Cemetery Oosterbeek

Cemetery

This British war cemetery contains the graves of 1,754 Allied troops. Most of the soldiers who were killed during Operation Market Garden lie buried here.

Airborne monument Oosterbeek

Monument/Memorial

The Airborne Memorial in Oosterbeek (municipality of Renkum) is a stone pillar crowned with five carved figures. The figures on the outside are men and soldiers, with one man at the top representing freedom.

Airborne Monument Arnhem

Monument/Memorial

The Airborne monument in Arnhem is a damaged pillar from the former Palace of Justice placed on a pedestal. The pillar stands as a memorial to the memories of death but also of victory and life. The text on the pillar reads: ’17 SEPTEMBER 1944′. There are two reliefs next to the monument, one of the Pegasus Airborne Symbol and the other with the text: “Battle of Arnhem 44, Bridge to the future 94”.

Allied Forces Monument

Monument/Memorial

The Allied Forces Monument in Baarland (municipality of Borsele) is a memorial of white stone.

Museum Wings of Liberation

Museum

In September 1944 the main operation for the Netherlans of World War II occurs, Operation Market Garden, which eventually led to the liberation. In the Museum, the occupation, the oppression and the final liberation are extensively exposed. Travel in time with authentic military equipment and beautiful dioramas. Also explore the vehicles, displays, a 3D movie, pictures and experience how it feels like to be a pilot during a flight simulation!

Betuws War Museum ‘The Island’ 1944 – 1945

Museum

Many of the museums artefacts were donated by war veterans or local people. Almost every object in the Betuws War Museum has its own story, so that through the museum guides’ verbal commentary you get an excellent impression of the Betuwe in that period.

Museum De Casteelse Poort

Museum

Historisch Museum De Casteelse Poort is housed in a villa that stands on the site of an old castle. Remains of the castle’s gatehouse can be seen in the cellar.

Canadian War Cemetery Groesbeek

Cemetery

In the Canadian War Cemetery, lie 2617 members of the Commonwealth armed forces killed during the Second world War.

Canadian War Cemetery Holten

Cemetery

The ‘Canadian War Cemetery Holten’ on the Holterberg is one of the most impressive reminders of the Second World War. In the spring of 1945, after five years of oppression, Canadian troops were principally responsible for the liberation of northern and eastern Netherlands. During the liberation operations, many Canadian liberators paid the ultimate price. In an historic setting, 1,394 military have found their final resting place at the Canadian Military Cemetery.

Crossing of the Leopold Canal

Monument/Memorial

The first stage of the attack on the Breskens pocket in 1944 was a crossing of the Leopold Canal, just east of where it met up with the canal de derivation de la Lys. The attack started on 6 October, under support of several dozens of Wasp flamethrower carriers.

War Museum Eyewitness

Museum

With a daring and modern concept, the Eyewitness visitor becomes a first-hand witness of the Second World War in Europe. Original attributes and life-sized mannequins are used to depict various wartime scenes in thirteen dioramas. Eyewitness also displays a number of prized objects that have rarely – if ever – been seen by the general public!

General Maczek Museum Breda

Museum

This museum has been dedicated to the brave men and women of the 1st Polish Armour Division commanded by General Stanisław Maczek, who have liberated major parts of the Netherlands from the German occupier in 1944 and 1945.

Information Centre: The Poles of Driel

Museum

The Information Centre: The Poles of Driel provide insights into the battle fought by the Ist Polish Independent Parachute Brigade in the village of Driel during Operation Market Garden.

Jonkerbos War Cemetery

Cemetery

The Jonkerbos War Cemetery in Nijmegen contains the graves of 1,543 military personnel who were killed on Dutch soil between September 3 1939 and May 5 1945.

Liberation Museum Zeeland

Museum

The Liberation Museum Zeeland takes us back to a special part of Zeelands history. During the Second World War Allied soldiers, sailors and airmen of various nationalities united in the fight against the German occupation forces. This struggle resulted in a lot of dead and wounded on both sides. The local population in Zeeland also suffered heavy casualties.

Margraten, the Netherlands American Cemetery and Memorial

Cemetery

Margraten, the Netherlands American Cemetery and Memorial is the only American military cemetery in the Netherlands. The U.S. 30th Infantry Division liberated this site on 13 September 1944. Here rest 8.301 American military dead.

Markt 12 Aalten

Museum

During World War II, only a small proportion of the Dutch population was actively involved in resistance activities. The village of Aalten was an exception. Similar to the village at the start of the Asterix & Obelix comic books, Aalten showed considerable courage and bravery in its resistance against the occupying forces, by giving an enormous number of refugees a place to hide.

German War Cemetery Ysselsteyn

Cemetery

The military cemetery can be found in Ysselsteyn, Netherlands, in the Province of Limburg close to the German border. The cemetery is the only German military cemetery in the whole Netherlands. 85 killed soldiers from the First World War and almost 32.000 from the Second World War are buried here on a territory of 28 hectares.

German War Cemetery Grebbeberg

Cemetery

Immediately after the Netherlands surrendered, a cemetery was laid out at the battle site for both Dutch and German military personnel who died during the Battle of the Grebbeberg.

Memorial for the mass grave Huissen

Monument/Memorial

The Dutch memorial in Huissen (municipality of Lingewaard) is a walled mass grave decorated with reliefs depicting the air raid on Huissen and a figure of Christ. The names of the victims are engraved in the sandstone wall. The construction of the memorial was first started on 17th September 1944 and completed officially on 2nd November 1947.

Museum airfield Deelen

Museum

Museum Vliegbasis Deelen is located on the road from Hoenderloo to Schaarsbergen. The former air base is a former German ‘Gefechtsstand’ and has recently been listed. The museum focuses on the Night Fight 1940-1945 and the air battle above the province of Gelderland. Scale-models, original footage, photos, finds and military objects (including a V1 replica with original interior) show the history of Vliegbasis Deelen during the Second World War.

Visitor centre Martinustoren

Museum

St. Martin’s tower is a continuous reminder of the damage and destruction inflicted on North Limburg in the last years of the war. It overlooks the battle grounds of Operation Market Garden and Operation Veritable as well as the Reichswald (Imperial Forest) in Germany, which formed the northern-most part of the Siegfried line. From the top of the tower you can also see where the longest Bailey bridge of the Second World War was built, as well as the bridge over the Maas River. Both were built by the British Royal Engineers at break-neck speed to enable the supply of weapons, munitions and troops etc. to the forces stationed in the Lower Rhine area. Even Churchill and Montgomery came to see the bridges for themselves.

British War Cemetery Mook

Cemetery

In the British Military Cemetery in Mook, 322 soldiers are buried. Many of those lying here were killed in the Betuwe region (September/October 1944), and in Germany (February 1945). Nationalities of those interred here: Great Britain (297), Poland (11), Canada (10), Australia (3), and New Zealand (1).

Monument the Wing

Monument/Memorial

The monument represents a 7 meter tall steel wing sticking out of the ploughed earth at an angle. It serves as a metaphor for the people that still have not been ´liberated´ from the war.

Monument for the 7th battalion Royal Hampshire Regiment

Monument/Memorial

The memorial to the soldiers of the 7th battalion of the Royal Hampshire Regiment’ in Driel (municipality of Overbetuwe), is a granite plaque framed with bricks displaying the 7th battalion of the Royal Hampshire Regiment’s emblem.

Camp Vught National Memorial

Museum

The Camp Vught National Memorial (Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught ) is located on part of the former SS camp Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch, also known as Camp Vught (January 1943 – September 1944).

Loenen Field of Honour

Cemetery

Over 3,900 war victims are buried at Loenen Field of Honour and include those who lost their lives in different places around the world due to various circumstances. There are military personnel, members of the resistance, people who escaped the Netherlands and went to England during the first years of the WWII to join the Allies (‘Engelandvaarders’) and victims of reprisal and forced labour. Those who died during the Indonesian War of Independence, military casualties from New Guinea and victims of peacekeeping missions in Korea, Lebanon, Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Mali are also buried here.

National Monument to the First Independent Polish Parachute Brigade Group

Monument/Memorial

On September 24 1944, during the battle for Arnhem, the 1st Independent Polish Parachute Brigade parachuted on to a landing zone by the village of Driel. The Brigade was commanded by Major-General S. Sosabowski.

British War Cemetery Nederweert

Museum

Nederweert was liberated by British troops on 21st September, 1944. The front line until 14th November was close by, following the Zuidwillemsvaart and Wessem-Nederweert canals; during that period there were casualties from patrol activity and from daily German shelling of Nederweert, besides some deaths in German minefields.

War Museum Overloon

Museum

War belongs in the museum. That is the motto of the Dutch National War and Resistance Museum, which is one of two theme museums in Liberty Park. In the National War and Resistance Museum, the history of the Second World War is presented.

British War Cemetery Overloon

Cemetery

All but one of 280 the graves (one Dutch grave) on this cemetery belong to British soldiers. 265 of them were soldiers 14 of them were airmen. Most of the soldiers lying here died in the fighting that took place in this area between October and November 1944. 

City Museum Doetinchem

Museum

The City Museum Doetinchem offers more than a collection and exhibition. The museum revolves around storytelling. The volunteers at the museum are good storytellers and would gladly escort you through the museum.

The National Liberation Museum 1944-1945

Museum

The National Liberation Museum 1944-1945 is located on the site where on 17 September 1944 paratroopers from the 82nd U.S. Airborne Division landed as part of Operation Market Garden. The museum holds a large collection of material concerning Operation Market Garden, the battle for the Reichswald and the Second World War in its broadest sense.

The battle of Woensdrecht

Monument/Memorial

Woensdrecht was an important town for the Allies since it was the only land entrance to South-Beveland and Walcheren. If the Canadians could capture the town the German forces to the west would be cut off from the rest of their army. Woensdrecht was the first key objective for safeguarding the Scheldt estuary.

Resistance Monument

Monument/Memorial

The monument was erected to honour resistance members who died, and in particular Jan van Hoof. Jan van Hoof was a member of the Geheime Dienst Nederland, an intelligence branch of the Resistance, and had gathered information on the two Waal bridges, and on the demolition charges planted on them by the Germans.

Waal crossing

Monument/Memorial

One of the main objectives of Operation Market Garden was to capture the two bridges across the Waal river in Nijmegen. This task proved to be difficult. In a desperate effort to maintain the momentum, U.S. paratroopers crossed the Waal in canvas boats. Attacking from both sides, they managed to capture the bridges intact.

War Memorial Renesse

Monument/Memorial

A white rubble stone statue of a female in regional costume holding an executed resistance fighter, placed on a square pedestal. In the stretch of grass in front of the memorial two memorial plaques.

War Memorial Causeway

Monument/Memorial

A group of granite and brick stone memorials, commemorating the French soldiers who were killed in May 1940 during the battle of Zeeland and the Scottish and Canadian soldiers who were killed during Operation Mallard in November 1944.

War Memorial Anna Jacobapolder

Monument/Memorial

The war memorial in Anna Jacobapolder (municipality of Tholen) is a natural stone gravestone, placed on a brick dais. Two commemorative stones have been built into it.

Gothic Line fortifications

Point of Interest

Former Gothic Line fortifications can be seen in the MediaValle area of the Serchio River, at Borgo a Mozzano, Italy. This site is the only one of the entire Gothic Line to have remained intact. The remains include bunkers, anti-aircraft emplacements, communication trenches, and antitank ditches.

Casoli Concentration Camp

Point of Interest

The internment camp in Casoli in the province of Chieti, Italy, was set up by the fascist government to imprison foreigners and anti-fascists following the entry of Italy into WWII. The camp operated from July 1940 to September 1943 and

Anzio Beachhead Museum

Museum

The Anzio Beachhead Museum is devoted to the Allied amphibious landing on 22 January 1944, along the coastline between Anzio and Nettuno, in Italy. The museum opened in 1994 for the 50th Anniversary of the landing. It comprises four sections:

Catania War Cemetery

Cemetery

Catania War Cemetery is a Commonwealth cemetery in Catania on the eastern coast of Sicily. It contains graves of 2,135 soldiers who died in the later stages of the Italian campaign during the Second World War. Many of them fell

Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery, Cassino

Cemetery

The War Cemetery in Cassino lies 139 km south-east of Rome. It contains the graves of 4,271 Commonwealth servicemen of the Second World War. The Cassino Memorial stands within the cemetery and commemorates over 4,000 Commonwealth servicemen who took part

Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery, Syracuse

Cemetery

Syracuse War Cemetery contains 1,059 Commonwealth graves from the Second World War, 134 of them unidentified. The cemetery also contains one First World War grave.

German War Cemetery Motta Sant’anastasia

Cemetery

The German War Cemetery can be found in Motta San Anastasia, Catania, Sicily. The cemetery contains 4,561 remains brought from all over Sicily. The cemetery was constructed in the shape of a building and the fallen were buried in the

Historical Museum of the Liberation, Rome

Museum

The Historical Museum of the Liberation in Rome retraces the period of the German occupation of Rome during the Second World War and its liberation in June 1944. Since 1957 the museum is located in the building of a former

Historical War Museum of the landings in Sicily

Museum

The Historical War Museum of the Landings in Sicily can be found in Catania, on the east coast of Sicily. The museum presents the Allied landings on the southern coast of Sicily in July 1943 and examines the effects and

Moro River Canadian War Cemetery

Cemetery

The Moro River Canadian War Cemetery can be found in Ortona Porto, Italy. The cemetery contains 1,615 graves from the Second World War, mostly of Canadian soldiers killed during the fighting at Moro River and Ortona, and during the weeks

Piana delle Orme Museum, Latina

Museum

The Piana delle Orme Museum can be found in Latina, Italy. Two pavilions of the museum park are entirely devoted to the display of military vehicles from the Second World War. Dioramas depict, among other things, how Italy became involved

Rome Commonwealth War Cemetery

Cemetery

The war cemetery in Rome was built after the entry of the Allied force into Rome in June 1944. It contains 426 Commonwealth graves from the Second World War. An inscription recalls the period of the war and commemorates the

Sangro River War Cemetery

Cemetery

The Sangro River War Cemetery is a Commonwealth war cemetery in Torino di Sangro, Italy. A total of 2,617 Allied soldiers are buried here who defended the shoreline near the Sangro River against the Germans retreating on the Winter Line.

Sicily-Rome American Cemetery, Nettuno

Cemetery

The Sicily-Rome American Cemetery and Memorial in Nettuno, Italy, covers 77 acres. The cemetery contains the remains of 7,860 of American soldiers who fell in the course of the liberation of Sicily, in the landings in Salerno and Anzio, in

The Battle of Ortona Museum

Museum

The Museum of the Battle of Ortona documents the war events that hit the town of Ortona, in Abruzzo, in 1943. The museum was inaugurated in 2002 by the Canadian Ambassador. The museum exhibition offers three sections presenting memorabilia, photos

The Wigram Hall

Museum

Wigram Hall is an exhibition room of the Castle of Casoli in Italy. The room is dedicated to Major Lionel Wigram, a British officer who played a significant role in the training and actions of the Majella Brigade. This room

US 82nd Airborne Division Monument

Monument/Memorial

The US 82nd Airborne Division Monument in Gela, Sicily, commemorates the men of the 82nd who fought and died at Ponte Dirillo on 10 July 1943. The names of 39 paratroopers are listed.

Museum of Memory

Museum

The Museum of Memory can be found in Borgo a Mozzano in the province of Lucca, in Tuscany. The museum presents war relics, vintage posters and documents of those who lived the dramatic moments of the Second World War. Its

Sant’Anna di Stazzema

Museum

The village of Sant’Anna di Stazzema in Tuscany, central Italy, was hit by a Nazi massacre in the course of an operation against the Italian resistance movement during the Italian Campaign of WWII. A total of 1,430 Italian civilians were

Historical Museum of Liberation, Lucca

Museum

The Historical Museum of Liberation in Lucca, Tuscany, opened in 1988 with the aim of retracing the liberation of Italy during WWII. On display are artefacts, photographs, maps, uniforms and war remains illustrating the early war period, the Nazi occupation,

Florence American Cemetery and Memorial

Cemetery

The Florence American Cemetery and Memorial can be found in Impruneta, 12 kilometers south of Florence, in Italy. The site covers 70 acres and contains the graves of 4,399 of American soldiers killed during the Second World War. Most of

Brazilian Military Cemetery of Pistoia

Cemetery

The Brazilian Military Cemetery in Pistoia, Tuscany, contained the remains of 463 Brazilian soldiers who died in the Italian Spring Offensive in 1945. The cemetery was closed in 1960 and the remains were interred in the National Monument in Flamengo,

Parco della Memoria Storica, San Pietro Infine

Site

The village of San Pietro Infine in Campania, Italy, was completely destroyed in late 1943 by fighting between the advancing U.S. forces seeking to break the Winter Line and the defending German troops. The Parco della Memoria Storica (History Memorial

Museum of the Resistance

Museum

The Resistance Museum in Bologna, Italy, is set in a former convent that also housed Bologna’s History Institute. Those two organisations work together to collect and preserve materials relating to anti-Fascism and Italian Resistance. The exhibitions focus on the history

Polish War Cemetery Bologna

Cemetery

The Polish War Cemetery in Bologna, Italy, contains the graves of 1,432 Polish soldiers and officers of the 2nd Polish Corps who died between 1944 and 1945. The inscription on the entrance arch honours Poland’s participation in the Italian Campaign

Monte Sole Historical Park, Bologna

Site

The Historical Park of Monte Sole in Bologna covers 6,300 hectares. During the fall of 1944, hundreds of civilians were slain by Nazi soldiers in the area. Since 1989 Monte Sole Historical Park is a protected zone promoting a culture

Patton Memorial Pilsen

Museum

The Patton Memorial Pilsen was opened in May 2005 on the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the city of Pilsen. The museum retraces the advance of the US Army led by General Patton in WWII. More than a thousand

Thank You America Memorial

Monument/Memorial

The Thank You America Memorial in Pilsen, Czech Republic, was erected in honour of the U.S. forces that liberated Pilsen in May 1945. The monument was renovated in May 2018 and it consists of two columns with inscriptions in both

2nd Infantry Division Memorial

Monument/Memorial

The 2nd Infantry Division Memorial pays tribute to the U.S. 2nd Infantry Division, recognised as a liberating unit by the U.S. Army’s Center of Military History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1993. The division advanced to Pilsen

16th Armored Division Memorial

Monument/Memorial

The Memorial commemorates the U.S. 16th Armored Division that liberated Pilsen from Nazi Germany on 6 May 1945, led by General Patton.

Anne Frank House

Museum

The Anne Frank House in Amsterdam is a biographical museum dedicated to the life story of the Jewish girl Anne Frank. The museum was established in the Frank’s former house, where they lived hidden in the Secret Annex for more

Aviation and War Museum Texel

Museum

The Luchtvaart & Oorlogsmuseum (Aviation and War Museum) in Texel presents the history of aviation and war in the Dutch Frisian island. The collection displays landing gear, propellers and engine parts. It is divided into six sub-collections: general aviation, deportation

Bunker Museum Schlei

Museum

The Bunker Museum in the Dutch island of Schiermonnikoog is housed in a bunker used during WWII by the Germans as a communication centre to collect radio signals and intercept allied bombers. The museum provides information relating to the Second

Bunker Museum Terschelling

Museum

The total complex of the Bunkermuseum in Terschelling, the Netherlands, covers an area of 7 hectares with 100 bunkers formerly used by German soldiers during WWII. The site can be visited freely with a route map providing information about the bunkers. The museum includes an exhibition which retraces the history of the Atlantikwall.

Casemate Museum

Museum

The Casemate Museum in Kornwerderzand is made out of seven bunkers which helped the Dutch Army to defend the area against the German invaders during the Second World War. The exhibition provides information on the construction of the Afsluitdijk and

Commonwealth War Graves Cemetery Terschelling

Cemetery

The Commonwealth war cemetery in West-Terschelling, in de Wadden Islands, contains the graves of 84 Allied soldiers who died in the course of the Second World War. Among them are 41 British, eight Australians, nine Canadians, four New Zealanders and

Dutch War Cemetery Grebbeberg (Ereveld + information center)

Cemetery

The Dutch War Cemetery in Grebbeberg, east of Rhenen in the Netherlands, contains the graves of more than 400 Dutch soldiers who fell in the fighting in the Grebbeberg area in May 1940. During WWII this cemetery served as a

Georgian War Cemetery Texel

Cemetery

The Georgian war cemetery in Texel, the Netherlands, contains the graves of 475 Georgian soldiers and their commander, Sjalwa Loladze. They fought for the German Army and died in heavy fights or were executed afterwards.

Liberation Forest

Point of Interest

The Liberation Forest in Groningen was planted in 1995 on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the liberation of the Netherlands. Approximately 30,000 maple trees were planted to pay tribute to the Canadian Armed forces who liberated Groningen in

National Hideout Museum

Museum

The National Hideout Museum (Nationaal Onderduikmuseum) in Aalten presents how people in the Netherlands and in Germany experienced the Second World War and how they reacted to the occupation. The museum’s main goal is to highlight the social and emotional

National Military Museum Soesterberg

Museum

The National Military Museum, housed in the former air base in Soesterberg, is one of the largest museums of the Dutch armed forces. The museum combines the collections of the former Military Aviation Museum in Soesterberg and Army Museum in

National Monument Camp Amersfoort

Monument/Memorial

The National Monument Camp Amersfoort can be found on the border between Leusden and Amersfoort in the Netherlands. Between 1941 and 1945 approximately 37,000 prisoners were incarcerated in the camp, which served as both a transit and prison camp directed

Resistance Museum Friesland

Museum

The Fries Verzetsmuseum in Leeuwarden is devoted to the impact of the Second World War on people in the province of Friesland, in the Netherlands. The collection presents 45,000 objects, documents, books, magazines, photographs and films which give a global

Russian War Cemetery Amersfoort-Leusden

Cemetery

The Russian War Cemetery in Amersfoort-Leusden can be found next to the municipal cemetery Rusthof. Of the 865 Russian soldiers buried here, 100 of them died of starvation, execution, exhaustion or illness in Camp Amersfoort during the German occupation.

National Monument on the Dam

Monument/Memorial

The National Monument in the centre of Amsterdam’s Dam Square serves as a daily reminder of the atrocities of the Second World War. The imposing 22-metres high monument was designed by Dutch architect J.J.P. Oud and unveiled on May 4,

Hollandsche Schouwburg

Monument/Memorial

The Hollandsche Schouwburg in Amsterdam is a former theatre used as a deportation centre by the Nazis during WWII. The Hollandsche Schouwburg is now a memorial site with a wall of names paying tribute to the Jewish victims. Over 6,700

Resistance Museum

Museum

The Resistance Museum can be found in the Plantage neighbourhood in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The permanent exhibition ‘The Netherlands in WWII’ illustrates the period of the German occupation through authentic objects, photos and personal documents, film and sound fragments. The

The Museon

Museum

The Museon is The Hague’s museum dedicated to science and culture, which regularly includes exhibitions related to WWII. The permanent exhibition ‘Children in Wartime’ displays stories, objects, photos, film clips and documents examining the influence of the war on children’s everyday life.

Museum Rotterdam ’40-’45 NOW

Museum

The Museum Rotterdam includes the permanent exhibition ’40-’45 NOW which is entirely devoted to the Second World War in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The exhibition examines how the citizens experienced the bombing, the occupation and the persecution of Nazi Germany. Personal

Indisch Herinneringscentrum

Museum

Since 2017 the remembrance centre about Indonesia can be found in The Hague, the Netherlands. Entirely dedicated to the heritage of Indonesia, the centre examines how the Second World War and its aftermath were experienced in the former Dutch colony.

National Memorial Centre Camp Westerbork

Museum

Camp KZ Westerbork was established in 1939 near Hooghalen and used as a transit camp for Dutch Jews, Sinti, Roma, resistance combatants and political adversaries before their transfer to extermination camps. Since 1983 the Memorial Museum’s permanent exhibition depicts Dutch

Monument French paratroopers

Monument/Memorial

The commemorative monument for French paratroopers can be found in Assen, Drenthe in the Netherlands. The monument was built in memory of Operation Amherst, the dropping of paratroopers from the 2nd and 3rd regiment SAS on 7 April 1945. Assen

Venray Commonwealth War Cemetery

Cemetery

The War Cemetery in Venray, in the province of Limburg, contains 692 Commonwealth burials of the Second World War, 30 of them unidentified, and one Polish burial. The town of Venray was liberated by Allied troops in the middle of October 1944.

Normandy Victory Museum

Museum

The Normandy Victory Museum in Carentan is a new historical centre dedicated to the events of the summer 1944 in the Manche, in France.

German war cemetery Munich

Cemetery

The war cemetery in Munich contains 3,543 war graves, including 1,778 from the First World War and 1,764 from the Second World War. Most of the victims buried here are German, although 343 graves are from victims from 18 different

Munich City Museum

Museum

The Munich City Museum includes a permanent exhibition dedicated to the history of National Socialism in Munich, starting with the end of the First World War in 1918 until 1945.

Landing Beach Fontane Bianche

Point of Interest

Fontane Bianche is a seaside town whose beaches were in the Eighth Army’s landing zone in 1943. When British troops landed, they found easy exits from the coast to the highway. Today few traces of the war remain.

French War Cemetery Venafro

Cemetery

The French war cemetery in Venafro, Italy, contains the graves of 3,414 French soldiers who fell during the Second World War. The cemetery is the biggest French war cemetery from WWII built on Italian soil.