- Point of Interest
- Piazza di S. Marco, 49, Rome, Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy
Venice Palace (Palazzo Venezia), in Rome, was the headquarters of the Fascist government. Mussolini used its Globe Room (Sala del Mappamondo) as his personal office. From its balcony, Mussolini used to harangue the crowds on the most important occasions, such as 10 June 1940, when Fascist Italy decided to enter the war.
Venice Palace, in the centre of Rome, dates back to the Renaissance and it was largely modified by Mussolini to adapt the building to his political and government needs. From the balcony of the Globe Room, Mussolini harangued the crowds on numerous occasions.
The museum that is now situated in the Venice Palace has removed all references to the Fascist past of the building. The Globe Room, which hosted the office of Mussolini, is now open only for special exhibitions, as well as the Great Council Room, where the meetings of the highest organ of the Fascist Party were held.
It was in this room that the meeting which brought a no-confidence vote for Mussolini’s government took place. The no-confidence vote ultimately resulted in the fall of Mussolini and the whole Fascist regime. The disastrous fate of the war and the Allied landings in Sicily caused a loss of confidence in Mussolini’s abilities by the Fascist hierarchy, which voted 19 against 7 in favour of the destitution of Mussolini; the vote culminated in the arrest of the dictator and signalled a new chapter of the Italian war experience.
Rome and Lazio
The region of Lazio in central Italy was the scene of heavy fighting during WWII: here the battles of Monte Cassino and Anzio were fought before the Allies could capture the capital of Rome. Recall the landings of Anzio and
Recall the course of the Italian Campaign of WWII while exploring a country immensely rich in culture and history. Start your journey in Sicily, where the first Allied landings occurred in July 1943. Then walk through war cemeteries in Catania
Historical Museum of the Liberation, Rome
The Museum of the Liberation in Via Tasso, Rome, is the symbolic place of the Nazi occupation of the Italian capital. The museum occupies an entire building which was used as a prison by the Sicherheitspolizei, the Nazi Security Police
In the Lateran Palace, in Rome, many Italian antifascists and politicians found shelter between 1943 and 1944. After the liberation, many of these wrote the new Italian Constitution and they subsequently governed the country.
Liberation of Rome
Rome was the first capital to be liberated from Nazi German occupation on 4 June 1944. Rome had been declared an open city which meant that it could be captured without any fighting. This was a welcome relieve after the heavy fought campaign of Cassino.
The Ghetto of Rome
In October 1943, the Nazis deported over 1.000 Jews from the former Jewish Ghetto in Rome. The Roman Ghetto had a long history that stretched back for many centuries.
The Ardeatine Caves Massacre
On 24 March 1944 German forces executed 335 Italian prisoners in the Ardeatine Caves (Fosse Ardeatine) just outside of Rome. The executions were an act of reprisal for an attack on German forces
which took place in Via Rasella, in Rome. None of the people executed were involved in the attack.
The Wedekind Palace (Palazzo Wedekind) on the Colonna Square (Piazza Colonna) in Rome was the headquarters of the National Fascist Party during the period of Fascist rule in Italy. After Italy’s capitulation came the Nazi occupation during which many Italian fascists reappeared on the scene again centering around the Palazzo.
The resistance at St. Paul’s Gate
In the aftermath of the capitulation of Italy, on 8 September 1943, Rome was left alone; the army and dozens of civilians tried to resist the German attack on Rome at Porta San Paolo, to no avail. The Germans eventually occupied the city.
San Lorenzo bombing
One of the crucial moments for Italian history is 19 July 1943, when the Allies bombed the San Lorenzo district, speeding up the fall of Mussolini, who a week later was defeated after a vote of no-confidence by the Great Council of Fascism and arrested.